a) Let us be realistic about the UNSC

Our recent victory in the hotly contested election to the International Court of Justice seems to have lifted our spirits as a nation. We are justifiably proud of our success and of the skill and determination with which our diplomacy was deployed. It would be prudent, however, not to interpret this in a way as to raise hopes of a permanent seat in the Security Council.

The UNSC election

The two most prestigious organs of the United Nations are the Security Council and the International Court of Justice. While the Security Council has 15 member states, the ICJ has 15 judges. Election to the UNSC is conducted only in the General Assembly and requires two-thirds majority to get elected. Election to the ICJ is held concurrently in the UNGA and UNSC and requires absolute majority of the total membership in each organ. Veto does not apply for election to the ICJ. India has lost elections to both these organs in the past. Of the two, the UNSC is by far more important from the national interest point of view. It deals with questions of peace and security as well as terrorism and has developed a tendency to widen its ambit into other fields, including human rights and eventually environment. In addition to the Kashmir issue, which Pakistan forever tries to raise, there are other matters in which India would be interested such as the list of terrorists — Hafeez Saeed for example. Since it is in permanent session, we have to try to be its member as often as possible. The ICJ is required to represent the principal civilisations and legal systems of the world. The judges sitting on ICJ are expected to act impartially, not as representatives of the countries of their origin. That is why they are nominated, not by their governments but by their national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration based in The Hague. To have an Indian judge at the ICJ, when we have an active case on its agenda regarding our national in illegal custody of Pakistan might be of some advantage, though it would be wrong to assume that the final judgment will go in our favour simply because an Indian is on the bench. He will surely act in an objective manner. We will win because we have an excellent legal case and are ably represented by an eminent lawyer. There are other bodies in the UN that are not as well known but are important enough to be represented on like the ACABQ (Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions) and the Committee on Contributions. The former consists of 16 members elected by the UNGA on the recommendation of the Fifth Committee of the UNGA dealing with the budget of the UN. Usually, the members are officers of the permanent missions serving on the Fifth Committee. Most often, they are of the rank of first secretary or counsellor; Ambassadors rarely offer their candidatures. The Committee on Contributions recommends the scale of assessments to the budget and the share of each member. This is a very important function, since the share decided by the UNGA applies to all the specialised agencies, etc. Even a 0.1 % change can make a difference of hundreds of thousands of dollars. We have had distinguished persons serving on both these committees, such as G. Parthasarathy, S.K Singh, as well as our current permanent representative, ambassador Syed Akbaruddin. Some stalwarts have also lost these elections. There is also the Human Rights Council; we have had almost continuous representation on it. The U.S. lost the election to it a few years ago; there is widespread resentment against the P-5’s presumption to a permanent seat on all bodies.

The veto question

Primarily at our initiative, the question of Security Council reform, euphemism for expansion, has been under consideration since 1970s. There is near unanimous support for increasing the number of non-permanent seats. The controversial question is about the increase in the category of permanent seats. The rationale for expansion has been accepted in-principle by nearly all, but the difficulty arises when the actual numbers and their rights are discussed. India, along with Brazil, Germany and Japan, has proposed an increase of six additional permanent seats, the other two being for Africa. The African group is demanding two permanent seats, recognised as reasonable by every member, but there are at least three and perhaps more claimants for the two seats. Then there is the question of the rights of the additional members. The G-4’s initial position was for the same rights as the present permanent members, essentially the veto right. Over the years, they have become more realistic and would be willing to forego the veto right. The firm position of the Africans is that the new members must have the same rights as the existing ones. This is a non-starter.

The larger picture

The P-5 will never agree to give up their veto right, nor will they agree to accord this right to any other country. (France supports veto for additional permanent members.) Also, the general membership of the UN wants to eliminate the existing veto; they will never agree to new veto-wielding powers. Variants of the veto provision have been suggested, such as the requirement of double veto, i.e. at least two permanent members must exercise veto for it to be valid. The P-5 are not willing to dilute their self-acquired right. Many member-states have been pledging support for our aspiration for permanent membership. This is welcome and should be appreciated; it would come in useful if the question ever comes up for a vote in the UNGA. Several P-5 countries have also announced support. The principal P-5 member opposing us is China. We should not be misled by their ambiguous statements on the subject. It has to be underscored that there is no way that India alone, by itself, can be elected as permanent member. It will have to be a package deal in which the demands of all the geographical groups, including the Latin America and Caribbean group which, like Africa, does not have a single permanent member, will have to be accommodated. Even if the Americans are sincere in their support for us, they will simply not lobby for India alone; it will be unthinkable for them to try to get India in without at the same time getting Japan also in. It is equally unthinkable, for a long time to come, for China to support Japan’s candidature. The P-5 will play the game among themselves but will stand by one another, as was evident recently at the time of election to the ICJ. So, we should be realistic. If a permanent seat is not available, there are other proposals on the table. One proposal is for the creation of ‘semi-permanent’ seats, according to which members would be elected for six-eight years and would be eligible for immediate reelection. Given India’s growing prestige and respect, it should not be difficult for us to successfully bid for one of these seats; it might be a better alternative than to unrealistically hope for a permanent seat.

b) Unwavering caution — on RBI holding repo rate

For the Reserve Bank of India there is just one economic indicator that dominates its policymaking calculus: price stability. With inflation-targeting as its main mandate — the consensus position that was articulated when the RBI Act was amended in May 2016 was that “price stability is a necessary precondition to sustainable growth” — the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) has opted yet again to keep interest rates unchanged. It is not hard to follow the rationale. Price gains as measured by the Consumer Price Index had accelerated to a seven-month high in October and the RBI’s survey of household expectations for inflation over both the three-month and one-year horizons showed a “firming up”. The RBI’s bimonthly policy statement also spelt out the data points and trends that informed its decision-making. For one, the moderation in core inflation in the first fiscal quarter has largely reversed. Price gains excluding the volatile food and fuel categories are particularly at risk from “the staggered impact of HRA increases by various State governments” that could push up housing inflation in 2018 and generate second-order ripples. Given India’s reliance on imports for a bulk of its fuel needs, the latest OPEC decision to maintain output cuts to keep global crude oil prices from softening can hardly provide much comfort. Taking into account all factors, including some that may lend respite, such as the wide-ranging cuts to the goods and services tax rate, the RBI raised its estimate for inflation over the third and fourth fiscal quarters by 10 basis points from its October projection: headline CPI inflation is now expected to accelerate and range between 4.3% and 4.7% in the second half. The MPC is, however, more confident about the prospects for growth, concerns over higher oil prices and shortfalls in kharif crop output and rabi season sowing notwithstanding. The Centre’s move to recapitalise public sector banks has won a vote of confidence from monetary policymakers for its potential to revive credit flows. Buttressing the confidence in the economy are the findings in the RBI’s survey, which posit an improvement in demand in the services and infrastructure sectors and an uptick in the overall business environment in the January-March quarter. Ultimately, though, the central bank has once again proffered a word of circumspection to fiscal authorities: taken together, the farm loan waivers implemented by some States, the partial reduction of excise duty and VAT on petroleum products and the GST rate cuts could result in fiscal slippage with accompanying consequences for price stability. For the RBI, caution continues to remain its credo.


1) Deployed

Meaning: Bring into effective action.

Example: Small states can often deploy resources more freely.

Synonyms: Utilize, Exploit

2) Prudent

Meaning: Acting with or showing care and thought for the future.

Example: No prudent money manager would authorize a loan without first knowing its purpose.

Synonyms: Wise, Sagacious

Antonyms: Unwise, Incautious

3) Interpret

Meaning: To decide what the intended meaning of something is.

Example: A jury should not interpret the silence of a defendant as a sign of guilt.

4) Ambit

Meaning: The scope, extent, or bounds of something.

Example: A full discussion of this complex issue was beyond the ambit of one book.

5) Arbitration

Meaning: The use of an arbitrator to settle a dispute.

Example: Tayside Regional Council called for arbitration to settle the dispute.

Synonyms: Adjudication,          Mediation

6) Agenda

Meaning: A plan of things to be done or problems to be addressed.

Example: He vowed to put jobs at the top of his agenda.

Synonyms: Schedule, Programme

7) Eminent

Meaning: (Of a person) famous and respected within a particular sphere.

Example: One of the world’s most eminent statisticians.

8) Resentment

Meaning: Bitter indignation at having been treated unfairly.

Example: His resentment at being demoted.

Synonyms: Bitterness, Irritation

Antonyms: Contentment, Happiness

9) Euphemism

Meaning: A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing.

Example: The jargon has given us ‘downsizing’ as a euphemism for cuts.

Synonyms: Substitute, Politeness

Antonyms: Dysphemism

10) Unanimous

Meaning: (Of an opinion, decision, or vote) held or carried by everyone involved.

Example: This requires the unanimous approval of all member states.

Synonyms: Uniform, Consistent

11) Claimants

Meaning: A person making a claim, especially in a lawsuit or for a state benefit.

Example: One in four eligible claimants failed to register for a rebate.

Synonyms: Applicant, Candidate

12) Forego

Meaning: Go without (something desirable).

Example: She wanted to forgo the tea and leave while they could.

Synonyms: Waive, Renounce

Antonyms: Keep

13) Veto

Meaning: A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a lawmaking body.

Example: Neither state was given a veto over amendments to the Act.

Synonyms: Rejection, Dismissal

Antonyms: Approval

14) Pledging

Meaning: Formally declare or promise that something is or will be the case.

Example: The Prime Minister pledged that there would be no increase in VAT.

Synonyms: Promise, Swear

15) Aspiration

Meaning: A hope or ambition of achieving something.

Example: The needs and aspirations of the people.

Synonyms: Desire, Hope

16) Comes up

Meaning: (Of an issue, situation, or problem) occur or present itself, especially unexpectedly.

Example: The subject has not yet come up.

Synonyms: Arise, Occur

17) Misled

Meaning: Cause (someone) to have a wrong idea or impression.

Example: The government misled the public about the road’s environmental impact.

Synonyms: Deceive, Delude

18) Ambiguous

Meaning: Open to more than one interpretation; not having one obvious meaning.

Example: Ambiguous phrases.

Synonyms: Equivocal, Ambivalent

Antonyms: Unambiguous, Clear

19) Lobby

Meaning: A group of people seeking to influence legislators on a particular issue.

Example:  Members of the anti-abortion lobby.

Synonyms: Campaign, Interest movement

20) Bid

Meaning: An attempt or effort to achieve something.

Example: He made a bid for power in 1984.

Synonyms: Attempt, Effort

21) Calculus

Meaning: An area of advanced mathematics in which continuously changing values are studied.

22) Consensus

Meaning: A general agreement.

Example: There is a growing consensus that the current regime has failed.

Synonyms: Agreement, Concord

Antonyms: Disagreement

23) Opted

Meaning: Make a choice from a range of possibilities.

Example: Consumers will opt for low-priced goods.

Synonyms: Choose, Select

24) Rationale

Meaning: A set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or belief.

Example: He explained the rationale behind the change.

Synonyms: Reasoning, Thinking

25) Horizons

Meaning: The limit of a person’s knowledge, experience, or interest.

Example: She wanted to leave home and broaden her horizons.

Synonyms: Outlook, Perspective

26) Firming up

Meaning: To make something more certain or less likely to change.

Example: Could we have a meeting so we can firm up the details of our agreement?

27) Spelt out

Meaning: To explain something in a very clear way with details.

Example: The government has so far refused to spell out its plans/policies.

28) Staggered

Meaning: Astonish or deeply shock.

Example: I was staggered to find it was six o’clock.

Synonyms: Astonish, Amaze

29) Prospects

Meaning: The possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring.

Example: There was no prospect of a reconciliation.

Synonyms: Likelihood, Expectation

30) Concerns

Meaning: Be relevant or important to; affect or involve.

Example: She was prying into that which did not concern her.

Synonyms: Affect, Involve

31) Shortfalls

Meaning: A deficit of something required or expected.

Example: They are facing an expected $10 billion shortfall in revenue.

32) Sowing

Meaning: Plant (seed) by scattering it on or in the earth.

Example: Fill a pot with compost and sow a thin layer of seeds on top.

Synonyms: Scatter, Spread

33) Buttressing

Meaning: Increase the strength of or justification for; reinforce.

Example: Authority was buttressed by religious belief.

34) Uptick

Meaning: A small increase or slight upward trend.

Example: An uptick in foreign tourism.

35) Circumspection

Meaning: The quality of being wary and unwilling to take risks; prudence.

Example: Circumspection is required in the day-to-day exercise of administrative powers.

Synonyms: Caution, Care

36) Waivers

Meaning: An act or instance of waiving a right or claim.

Example: Their acquiescence could amount to a waiver.

Synonyms: Renunciation, Surrender

37) Slippage

Meaning: Failure to meet a standard or deadline; the extent of this.

Example: Slippage on any job will entail slippage on the overall project.


Meaning: A result or effect, typically one that is unwelcome or unpleasant.

Example: Abrupt withdrawal of drug treatment can have serious consequences.

Synonyms: Result, Upshot

Antonyms: Cause

39) Caution

Meaning: Care taken to avoid danger or mistakes.

Example: Anyone receiving a suspect package should exercise extreme caution.

Synonyms: Care, Wariness

Antonyms: Recklessness

40) Credo

Meaning: A statement of the beliefs or aims which guide someone’s actions.

Example: He announced his credo in his first editorial.

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