1. a) Making the Internet disappear

Imagine this situation. A region of the country is deeply annoyed with the actions of the government. There are plans for widespread and aggressive protests. The government fears that the protests might turn violent. It decides to cut-off the water supply to the entire region for an indefinite period of time, reasoning that people will be too busy looking for water to protest, and too exhausted by the time they have found it. In this way, law and order has been preserved. Our intuitions rebel against this kind of reasoning. We think — rightly — that access to water is a basic, non-negotiable right, a part of the right to life, and that it cannot simply be left at the mercy of the government. If the government wishes to keep law and order, then it must find other, less drastic ways of doing so, such as increasing security, perhaps a curfew, or even winning the trust of the people and addressing their grievances.

Cutting off e-access

In the 21st century, the Internet has assumed an increasingly important place in our lives. From banking to political speech, and from complex medical procedures to the purchase of basic necessities, important aspects of our economic, social, and cultural life now depend upon the Internet. Many of the fundamental rights guaranteed by our Constitution — the freedom of speech and expression, the freedom of association, the freedom of trade — are exercised in significant part on the Internet. But the growing importance of the Internet in personal life, as well as its growing use to challenge governmental authority, has led to a backlash, where governments attempt to reorient the relationship between the individual and the state in their favour by controlling the Internet. In India, one ubiquitous form of such control is the “Internet shutdown”. Just like the government may cut-off water supply to prevent protests, the government may — and actually does — cut-off Internet access for purposes as comically diverse as preventing violent protests (Kashmir) and cheating in exams (Gujarat). In an article published in May 2016, Apar Gupta and Raman Chima pointed out that with 37 Internet shutdowns, triggered by 11 States over a two-year period, India had attained the dubious distinction of joining Iraq in “reporting the highest number of incidents involving government mandated shutdown of Internet access” — with serious consequences both for civil rights, and for business. In another article, published just two weeks ago, Nakul Nayak pointed to 55 Internet shutdowns in 2017 alone. The sheer ubiquity of Internet shutdowns makes it clear that it is being used as a routine card in the ever expanding “law and order” toolkit of the state. To return to the analogy with which this essay began, think of a situation where the standard — and primary — response of the government to a potential law and order problem was to immediately cut-off water access for an entire area, indiscriminately.

The legal angle

For a long time, the legal basis of Internet shutdowns was unclear. A few years ago, the High Court of Gujarat invoked Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) to uphold an Internet shutdown. Section 144, which has its roots in the colonial-era British police state, authorises prohibitory orders to “prevent…. obstruction, annoyance or injury to any person lawfully employed, or danger to human life, health or safety, or a disturbance of the public tranquility, or a riot, of an affray.” Section 144 is primarily used to secure an area from damage or harm in the case of a potential or actual law and order disturbance, and more notoriously, to ban protests or other forms of political action in places such as central Delhi. A key flaw in the Gujarat High Court’s decision, however, was its failure to understand that the provisions of the CrPC cannot directly be transposed into the online world. In the way that it is commonly used in the physical world, Section 144, at its worst, only ends up placing certain specific areas beyond the bounds of large assemblies and associations, and always for a temporary period of time. An Internet shutdown, however, takes away an entire — and critical — platform of communication and work altogether. In an attempt to adjudicate a fair constitutional balance between the fundamental rights of individuals on the one hand and the interests of the state in maintaining law and order on the other, the Supreme Court has often insisted that the state’s rights-infringing action must be “proportionate”: that is, there ought to be no greater invasion of the individual’s right than what is strictly necessary to achieve the state’s goal. Internet shutdowns, clearly, fail the test of proportionality. This is because they are indiscriminate, in both whom they target (that is, everyone within a defined area, whether potential disruptors of law and order, or the entirely innocent), and the manner in which they do so (cutting-off access to the entire Internet, which includes a vast majority of entirely bona fide and legal uses of the Internet).

More stringent rules

Perhaps realising that Section 144 of the CrPC was a poor peg on which to hang Internet shutdowns, in August 2017, the government notified certain “Suspension Rules”, taking the cover of yet another colonial law — the Telegraph Act of 1885. While these rules were meant to bring transparency and clarity to the procedure through which Internet services were suspended, they remain deeply problematic in themselves. As Nayak points out, there was no transparency or democratic debate when these rules were framed; their scope is frighteningly vast, and includes phone calls as well as Internet calls; and there is no provision that envisages a lifting of the shutdown after any specific time. But perhaps what is most important about these rules is the virtual non-existence of mechanisms of accountability. After designating certain officers who can authorise Internet shutdowns, the rules only require a “review committee”, whose scope is limited to decide whether the declaration was valid or not. Even if we grant that in certain exceptional situations, such as a public emergency, the government may be justified in temporarily blocking access to certain parts of the Internet, this is a power that is liable to all kinds of misuse, and must be tempered with stringent safeguards. Just like the police must present an individual before a court within 24 hours if they want to keep her in custody, the government must, by law, subject Internet shutdowns to judicial scrutiny as soon as reasonably possible. And courts must take into account the exceptional character of Internet shutdowns and their impact on core civil liberties before validating them. The notion that the government must have the ability to control the Internet in order to preserve law and order is an intuitively attractive one. However, like many other intuitively attractive ideas, the concentration of more power in the hands of the government will only further disempower the individual against the state, and achieve a temporary illusion of security at the cost of a permanent loss of freedom.

  1. a) Of faith and fever

Faced with one of the worst dengue epidemics it has seen, this year the Tamil Nadu government responded by freely distributing a herbal concoction, nilavembu kudineer, recommended for fevers under the ancient Siddha system of medicine. Even though there is no evidence of their efficacy, alternative remedies such as papaya-leaf juice for dengue find many takers during epidemics. While it is hard for government bodies to curb such practices, what they must never do is to endorse them. Yet, there are growing instances of exactly this happening. For example, last year the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research launched an anti-diabetic herbal pill called BGR-34 on the strength of what appeared to be very poor evidence. One of the several ingredients of nilavembu kudineer comes from a plant called Andrographis paniculata, which appears in herbal medicine systems across South Asia. As is often the case with such herbs, some evidence exists for its potency against a range of illnesses. For example, A. paniculata is known to inhibit the dengue virus in animal cells in a laboratory, and to reduce symptoms of respiratory tract infections in small human trials. But innumerable other herbal remedies also show such early promise. Sadly, only a tiny handful of these remedies go on to prove their efficacy in large scale, placebo-controlled human trials, the gold standard of modern medicine. This is because the science of developing drugs from medicinal plants is complicated. Poly-herbal remedies like nilavembu are a mix of several compounds, while most of modern medicine relies on single-compounds. Plus, the amount of the active ingredient — the compound in a herb that acts against an illness — varies across plants. So drug makers have to find a way to identify this ingredient and test it in large scale trials. This exercise requires not only massive financial investment but also intellectual honesty. Unfortunately, too many attempts in India by the government to validate traditional medicine are driven less by honesty and more by blind faith. This has led to the promotion of herbal remedies with scant evidentiary basis. Against this background, the endorsement of nilavembu — even if it is not pushed as an alternative to allopathic medicine — has its consequences in the face of a deadly epidemic. It is possible that people will misconstrue a supplement for a cure. The risk of patients who need medical attention, such as those with dengue haemorrhagic fever, opting for this drug instead of rushing to a hospital should not be underestimated. So far dengue has made over 87,000 people sick across the country, while killing over 150. Both numbers are underestimations, given the government’s poor surveillance systems. At a time when modern medicine is advancing towards greater transparency and replicability in clinical evidence, the government’s claims on nilavembu aren’t fooling anyone in the scientific community. But these are misleading laypeople in ways that can hurt them. This is a matter of shame.


1) Annoyed

Meaning: Slightly angry; irritated.

Example: Kelly was annoyed with him.

2) Cut-off

Meaning: The act of stopping the supply of something.

Example: The US has announced a cutoff of military aid to the country.

3) Rebel

Meaning: Rise in opposition or armed resistance to an established government or leader.

Example: The Earl of Pembroke subsequently rebelled against Henry III.

Synonyms: Revolt, Mutiny

4) Curfew

Meaning: A regulation requiring people to remain indoors between specified hours, typically at night.

Example: A dusk-to-dawn curfew.

5) Grievances

Meaning: A feeling of resentment over something believed to be wrong or unfair.

Example: He was nursing a grievance.

Synonyms: Complaint, Criticism

Antonyms: Commendation

6) Backlash

Meaning: A strong negative reaction by a large number of people, especially to a social or political development.

Example: A public backlash against racism.

Synonyms: Counterblast, Comeback

7) Reorient

Meaning: Change the focus or direction of.

Example: The country began reorienting its economic and social policies in 1988.

8) Ubiquitous

Meaning: Present, appearing, or found everywhere.

Example: His ubiquitous influence was felt by all the family.

Synonyms: Omnipresent, Everywhere

Antonyms: Race, Scarce

9) Dubious

Meaning: Hesitating or doubting.

Example: I was rather dubious about the whole idea.

Synonyms: Doubtful, Uncertain

Antonyms: Certain, Definite

10) Ubiquity

Meaning: The fact of appearing everywhere or of being very common.

Example: The ubiquity of mobile phones means you don’t really need a watch.

11) Analogy

Meaning: A process of arguing from similarity in known respects to similarity in other respects.

Example: Argument from analogy.

Synonyms: Similarity, Parallel

Antonyms: Dissimilarity

12) Indiscriminately

Meaning: In a random manner; unsystematically.

Example: His armies slaughtered men, women, and children indiscriminately.

Synonyms: Randomly, Blindly

Antonyms: Selectively, Systematically

13) Invoked

Meaning: Cite or appeal to (someone or something) as an authority for an action or in support of an argument.

Example: The antiquated defence of insanity is rarely invoked in England.

Synonyms: Cite, Adduce

Antonyms: Waive

14) Tranquility

Meaning: The quality or state of being tranquil; calm.

Example: Passing cars are the only noise that disturbs the tranquillity of rural life.

Synonyms: Peace, Repose

Antonyms: Commotion, Excitability

15) Riot

Meaning: A violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd.

Example: Riots broke out in the capital.

Synonyms: Uproar, Rampage

16) Affray

Meaning: An instance of group fighting in a public place that disturbs the peace.

Example: Lowe was charged with causing an affray.

Synonyms: Fight, Brawl

17) Notoriously

Meaning: Used to emphasize that a quality or fact, typically a bad one, is well known.

Example: The company is notoriously difficult to contact.

18) Flaw

Meaning: A mistake or shortcoming in a plan, theory, etc. which causes it to fail or reduces its effectiveness.

Example: There were fundamental flaws in the case for reforming local government.

Synonyms: Defect, Blemish

Antonyms: Strength

19) Adjudicate

Meaning: Act as a judge in a competition.

Example: We asked him to adjudicate at the local flower show.

Synonyms: Judge, Try

20) Infringing

Meaning: Actively break the terms of (a law, agreement, etc.).

Example: Making an unauthorized copy would infringe copyright.

Synonyms: Contravene, Violate

21) Invasion

Meaning: An incursion by a large number of people or things into a place or sphere of activity.

Example: There was a brief pitch invasion when Sunderland scored.

Synonyms: Influx, Inrush

22) Peg

Meaning: A reason for discussing something further.

Example: They decided to use the anniversary as the peg for/a peg on which to hang a TV documentary.

23) Suspended

Meaning: Defer or delay (an action, event, or judgement).

Example: The judge suspended judgement until January 15.

Synonyms: Exclude, Debar

24) Frighteningly

Meaning: Used to express alarm at a situation or event.

Example: Frighteningly, there is little anyone can do.

25) Envisages

Meaning: Contemplate or conceive of as a possibility or a desirable future event.

Example: The Rome Treaty envisaged free movement across frontiers.

Synonyms: Foresee, Predict

26) Stringent

Meaning: (Of regulations, requirements, or conditions) strict, precise, and exacting.

Example: Stringent guidelines on air pollution.

Synonyms: Strict, Firm

Antonyms: Lenient, Flexible

27) Notion

Meaning: A conception of or belief about something.

Example: Children have different notions about the roles of their parents.

Synonyms: Idea, Belief

28) Intuitively

Meaning: Without conscious reasoning; instinctively.

Example: He knows intuitively how to calm me.

29) Illusion

Meaning: An instance of a wrong or misinterpreted perception of a sensory experience.

Example: Stripes embellish the surface to create the illusion of various wood-grain textures.

Synonyms: Mirage, Hallucination

30) Epidemics

Meaning: A sudden, widespread occurrence of an undesirable phenomenon.

Example: An epidemic of violent crime.

Synonyms: Spate, Rash

31) Concoction

Meaning: A mixture of various ingredients or elements.

Example: The facade is a strange concoction of northern Mannerism and Italian Baroque.

Synonyms: Mixture, Brew

32) Efficacy

Meaning: The ability to produce a desired or intended result.

Example: There is little information on the efficacy of this treatment.

33) Curb

Meaning: Restrain or keep in check.

Example: She promised she would curb her temper.

Synonyms: Restrain, Check

34) Placebo-controlled

Meaning: Relating to a drug trial in which the drug being tested is compared with a placebo (= a substance containing no medicine)

35) Relies

Meaning: Depend on with full trust or confidence.

Example: I know I can rely on your discretion.

Synonyms: Depend, Count

Antonyms: Distrust

36) Intellectual

Meaning: Possessing a highly developed intellect.

Example:  You are an intellectual girl, like your mother.

Synonyms: Intelligent, Clever

Antonyms: Stupid, Illiterate

37) Misconstrue

Meaning: Interpret (a person’s words or actions) wrongly.

Example: My advice was deliberately misconstrued.

Synonyms: Misunderstand, Misinterpret

38) Haemorrhagic

Meaning: Accompanied by or produced by haemorrhage.

Example: A viral haemorrhagic fever.

39) Surveillance

Meaning: Close observation, especially of a suspected spy or criminal.

Example: He found himself put under surveillance by British military intelligence.

Synonyms: Observation, Scrutiny

40) Laypeople

Meaning: A person without professional or specialized knowledge in a particular subject.

Example: His highly successful lectures were meant for an audience of laypersons interested in the natural sciences.

Related Editorials – Previous Days

THE HINDU EDITORIAL : October 13, 2017

THE HINDU EDITORIAL : October 14, 2017