Dear Banking Aspirants,

The Days are numbered for the IBPS CLERK MAINS EXAM 2017 and we are getting an umpteen number of notifications from many banking organizations. Also, we are getting results and scorecards for the exams which ended in the year 2017. We know, you will be eager to check the results and also the scorecards of the exams, apart from that you will also try to regain the confidence and do the best in the forthcoming exams.

The Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS) has also released the Tentative Calendar for the year 2018 and the first exam for the IBPS Exams 2018 starts in the month of August. Don’t forget, the IBPS CLERK MAINS Exam is still 2 days away and we know, you have put in hard work to excel in the exams. Clearing the cutoff marks in the IBPS CLERK MAINS EXAM 2017 is not the great thing, to score more in the Mains Exam is the important thing. The only word to characterize “Aspirant’s” Hard work was ‘Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious‘. So these questions which we are providing in the IBPS CLERK MAINS EXAM PLANNER 2017 will actually help your preparations take off to the next level.

Finally as exams these days are more complex and one has to prepare in a different way because the conventional way of learning is now a far distant dream and one has to prefer for smart way of preparations to excel in the exams. New Pattern Questions are a trend  now and mastering the new pattern questions should be the priority.The exam scenario, these days are entirely different and the complex questions and also the difference in the timings makes the exams more complex with the number of candidates adding more competition to the existing factors.

We have been providing Exam Planners for various exams and now due to constant feedback to start a new series for the IBPS CLERK MAINS EXAM 2017 which happens on 21st January, 2018 we have started a Exam study Planner to battle the IBPS CLERK MAINS EXAM 2017. Since the struggle for the final place in the list of selected needs bigger preparations, we hope this will help you to achieve the same. We have also provided Quantitative Aptitude , Reasoning Ability, English Language , Current Affairs and Static GK in the planner, so that this will be helpful for the candidates who are preparing for the IBPS CLERK MAINS EXAM 2017.

IBPS CLERK Mains 2017 Study Planner

English Language – Day 18

Time: 20 Minutes

Topic : Sentence Replacement – New  Pattern

Sentence Replacement – New  Pattern


Q.1) By the time Edmundo’s brilliant spin and finish was done, three United players lay beaten on the floor as Vasco’s showman peeled away celebrating with his shirt over his head.

a) For 43 minutes, Manchester United had toiled in the sweltering heat of the Maracana, producing one of the worst performances of the Sir Alex Ferguson era. Gary Neville had been especially calamitous, furiously sweeping at the sweat-sodden curtains on his forehead having teed up one of Brazil’s greatest goalscorers, Romario, twice. Vasco da Gama were cruising to half-time when they delivered the goal that encapsulated the European champions’ humiliating jaunt to Brazil. ____________________.

b) Edmundo was supremely talented, a player who combined moments of breathtaking skill with an elbows-out aggressive style that made him horrible to play against. He was a brilliant dribbler with an inventive streak, and would attempt outrageous tricks such as the Pelé runaround for which fans loved him, even if it would infuriate his team-mates. He was affectionately nicknamed O Animal – the beast, a force of nature._____________________.

c) Although he played brilliantly on his return from Rio, it was too late. Milan won the title and Edmundo departed Fiorentina, his relationship with the club’s hierarchy irrevocably damaged. It was one of a string of fall-outs and misdemeanours that had pushed Edmundo from club to club._______________________.

d) Vasco started well but their opener owed plenty to Neville’s intervention. On 24 minutes the right-back played the most casual of backpasses into Edmundo’s path, who flicked the ball sideways for Romario to slot home. It was an uncharacteristic blunder by Neville, yet two minutes later he surpassed it while attempting the rarely seen 20-yard chested backpass. _____________________.

e) Romario’s opening two goals were foolish concessions on United’s part, but this time there was little they could do. Their faces said they had never seen anyone like Edmundo before, and they probably hadn’t; most of the players had never played in Brazil and later admitted theyhad seen no footage of their opponents in preparation. “Only geniuses can do what Edmundo did to me for his goal,” Silvestre later reflected. ________________________.

Q.2) We must trust them and keep that drive alive.

a) Naysayers might argue that demographic differences between Finland and the UK make comparing education policies pointless. The population of Finland is homogeneous; just 5% of the population was born outside the country and don’t speak either Finnish or Swedish. ______________________. The economic homogeneity of the population, and the equity of society that is reflected in its schools, has contributed to Finland’s success.

b) I worked in England for two years as a teacher before moving to Finland eight years ago. My colleagues in the UK were supportive and the headteacher gave me subject leadership in my second year. _____________________. Finland’s education policies have been highly praised and the country has started to export its model around the world.

c) Teachers enter the profession full of drive and enthusiasm. They are in the job for the right reasons. ____________________. To do this, we must give them the tools and time they need to recover after a hard day at work.

d) Teachers in Finland are given a great deal of responsibility and are allowed unfettered flexibility in what and how they teach. Performance isn’t observed and graded. ___________________. Detailed plans are not expected either.

e) While most six-year-olds in the UK are subject to national tests, those in Finland haven’t even started formal schooling yet. When they do, the teacher’s judgment alone is trusted in assessing students. _________________. And no one uses the data to construct league tables or put pressure on schools.

Q.3) On May 2nd the WHO reported 453 suspected cases of the disease there, including some in the capital, Kinshasa.

a) It occupies a strange place on the spectrum of infectious tropical diseases. Not as important as malaria. _____________________. Not as revolting as elephantiasis.

b) Yellow fever is spread by Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that also carries dengue and Zika. Its early symptoms—a high temperature, nausea, vomiting and muscle pain—are reasonably mild and usually last only a few days. ____________________. Patients experience severe abdominal pain, become jaundiced and bleed internally and from their eyes, mouth and nose.

c) Laboratory analyses have linked a few cases in Kenya to the Angolan outbreak. More worrying is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). _____________________. Less than 30% of the country’s population was thought to have been vaccinated before today’s outbreak.

d) Once yellow fever is established in a tropical country, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Monkeys infected by the virus act as a reservoir for the disease. _____________________. Aegypti lays its eggs in standing water, meaning that even a discarded food tin could be a breeding ground.

e) Production of yellow-fever vaccine has increased in the past five years, but it would be difficult to raise further. It has only four sources: Sanofi Pasteur, a French drug company, and institutes in Brazil, Senegal and Russia. ______________________. If yellow fever did take hold in Asia, he says, then the numbers at immediate risk would rise from tens of millions to 100m or more.

Q.4) An office with a dozen staff who had previously spent much of their time overseeing contract workers assisting the Greek asylum service expanded rapidly.

a) The reshuffle brought Ioannis Mouzalas into the role of junior minister. An obstetrician with lengthy service at the medical charity Doctors of the World, he appeared a strong choice for the role. But those hoping for a step change would be disappointed. _____________________.

b) Some critics see an even more cynical quid pro quo. The bigger the mess in Greece, the harsher the conditions, the greater the deterrent for other refugees and migrants who see the country as a route into the EU, they argue. _________________________. A spokesperson for the Commission denied that there was a deterrence strategy, insisting that it was “committed to improving conditions in Greece”.

c) The situation exploded in February when Greek asylum service workers on the islands went on strike. An asylum service email on 25 January had informed the workers that “timely payments of wages was postponed indefinitely”. _____________________. Seven months after law 4375/2016 passed there was still no clear plan for what it should look like.

d) Instead of signing off and allowing work to begin, the ministry returned with its own proposal costed at $8m. ______________________. In a letter dated 7 July, the ministry wrote to ASB “that for Softex camp our plans will not change”. The proposal was rejected.

e) The decision by the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) to classify the situation in Greece as an emergency turned what had been a backwater posting into a major placement almost overnight. ________________________. The UNHCR team in Greece expanded to 600 people across 12 offices. Roughly one-third of the workforce were international staff.

Q.5) Suketu Mehta’s compendious narrative of Bombay low-life, Maximum City, had been a critical and commercial success.

a) I was in Berlin at the end of 2005 when my agent called and asked me if I’d write a book on Calcutta. It was a work of non-fiction he wanted: Indian non-fiction was going to be the new Indian fiction. I declined, saying, “I’d rather write about Berlin”; but I saw where he was coming from. ____________________.

b) A new universe was at hand, comprising an impatient aspirational class._________________________. One could partake of this creation-myth by writing of Bombay, because it embodied its ambitions so vibrantly, and of New Delhi, which had benefited even more tangibly than Bombay in terms of political power from the new dispensation. Bangalore, too, and even Chennai and smaller cities could be part of the new epic.

c) Left rule in Bengal was, in one sense at least, akin to a colonial presence, in that it thrived, as British rule had, on the splintering of the opposition, and on the political void outside itself. But it had two great achievements. The first took place early, and was almost undone later: Operation Barga, by which land was “redistributed” from landlords to sharecroppers and peasants in rural Bengal. ______________________.

d) As a child, I escaped Bombay and school, during my summer and winter holidays, into Calcutta. It was like a journey towards the pastoral. _____________________. It wasn’t exactly tranquility and nature, but I was electrified by it, as Wordsworth claimed his younger, unthinking self had been by rocks and trees.

e) As I began to feel, for the first time, that a new book about Calcutta was possible, precipitous political changes were taking place. _______________________. The signs for the Left Front were worrying; it had emphatically lost seats in the general elections in 2009 to TK party. Everyone knew this had to do with its panicky mishandling of industrialisation.

Q.6) If Indigenous Peoples’ rights are not secured and protected, it will be impossible for the world to deliver on the promises of the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.

a) In the 1970s Indigenous Peoples had brought to the UN’s attention the problems and issues they were facing, which led the UN to establish the Working Group on Indigenous Populations in 1982. This was mandated to listen to the developments in indigenous territories and to draft a declaration on their rights. The drafting started in 1985 and Indigenous Peoples took an active part. _______________________.

b) I was very glad to hear the Pope’s comments on the right to free, prior and informed consent and his recognition that our lands are vital to our identities, values and spirituality. His words inspire hope for Indigenous Peoples facing an uphill struggle. ______________________. Studies show that where Indigenous Peoples have secure rights to their lands, carbon storage is higher and deforestation is lower.

c) I think that there has been an increase in media coverage over the years. I’m glad to see less coverage that portrays us as primitive, but sometimes the media fails to capture the fact that we are not anti-development. We are also seeing more media coverage – but still not enough – on the contributions of Indigenous Peoples to global goals on climate, poverty and peace. ____________________.

d) Finally, Indigenous Peoples often live in areas at increased risk of climate change-related disasters. I have already heard from Indigenous Peoples in Kiribati whose homes have been lost to rising seas. _______________________. Where Indigenous Peoples’ rights are ignored, they face the loss of their lands, livelihoods, sacred sites and self-governance.

e) I think the Indigenous Peoples’ movement surpasses other social movements. They have struggled against colonisation for more than 500 years and continue against forms of colonisation and racism. __________________. Many still fight to protect their territories, which makes their movement different from others.

Q.7) According to Grant Bigg, professor of Earth systems at Sheffield University and author of the 2015 book Icebergs, there is a long list of technical hurdles that must be overcome.

a) A firm in Abu Dhabi has floated plans to tow icebergs from Antarctica to the United Arab Emirates to solve the country’s fresh water shortage. ___________________. In a promotional animation released by the firm, a giant, flat-topped iceberg is towed into the Persian Gulf bearing penguins and polar bears, which double as a tourist attraction. There are no polar bears in Antarctica.

b) The pace of development in UAE is such that groundwater supplies are predicted to run dry in the next 15 years. A typical Emirati uses 500 litres of water per day, about 80% more than the global average. _________________________. Globally, the UN warns that within two decades, 600 million children will live in regions enduring extreme water scarcity.

c) No one has towed icebergs from Antarctica to provide water to parched nations, but the idea is far from new. In the early 19th century, proposals to tow icebergs into the Southern Ocean to balance out the temperature of the Earth were already considered old hat. But enthusiasm for the challenge persisted _______________________.

d) A single iceberg-towing vessel can cost around $75,000 a day, and to tow a massive iceberg might need several ships for months at a time. ________________________.“Is it more practical to take a tanker to Antarctica and capture some fresh water melting off a glacier?” In Canada, shops already sell bottled water made from chunks of frozen water that are chipped off icebergs. King has a chunk in his freezer.

e) Synthetic fibre ropes, which are stronger than steel, can be slung around icebergs at the waterline, but when tugging begins the rope can slip off or make the iceberg roll over. Another reason the towing must be done slowly and carefully is that dragging an iceberg through the ocean can make it break apart. The industry has come up with nets for capturing unstable icebergs, but they don’t work in every case.

Q.8) There are probably hundreds more hidden under trees in that scorched Arizona desert alone.

a) It’s relatively easy to spot bones in the desert. _______________________. Once you start looking it seems they’re everywhere. Mostly it’ll be a rabbit’s skull or the hip bone of a small mammal.

b) Last year, there were officially 322 deaths along the US border with Mexico. Human remains were found in the deserts and remote ranchland in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and California. In the past decade there have been 4,205. It’s an estimation because these are just those they have recovered. ______________________.

c) Filadelfo was just 22 in June 2015 when he left his home in San Antonio de Cortez in Honduras. He’d always talked about leaving, but when he finally did he didn’t tell his parents he was going. His sister Olga knew; he asked her to make corn tortillas for his trip. ___________________________.

d) On 18 June 2016, he called home to say he was about to walk into the desert. “I told him not to go; that he was doing fine in Mexico,” Olga said. “But he said one of his friends was going and he had decided to help him.” Olga choked back tears. _______________________.

e) For Ely, sending his team to search this particular route brings back painful memories. _____________________. Rigoberto, an undocumented immigrant, was deported from the US, forced to leave his wife and children behind in Oceanside, California. The summer he lost his life he was trying to return to them.

Q.9) Their house across the way from the Lawrences, is the first they have ever owned.

a) “It doesn’t affect me,” Mrs Dvir said, cradling the youngest of her three children. “I came here because the place appealed to me, the beach, the absence of traffic, the chance of a contented life. I felt strangled in Holon after seven years in a rented flat.”

b) Itamar and Yaffa Dvir prefer to talk about “founders” rather than “pioneers.” They wanted to be among the first. ____________________. Before they came to Yamit, they rented a flat in Holon, an industrial satellite of Tel Aviv.

c) Mrs Carol Lawrence is an all-American Jewish girl, born in New York, raised in Miami, married, four children. Her husband, who used to he a building contractor, is developing a business as a carpenter. He travels daily to a nearby village, where he has a workshop. __________________.

d) The Israeli Government plans to settle 350 families here by next spring. Yamit is the first urban settlement established in territory occupied during the 1967 war. ____________________. Yamit straddles the old international border between Egypt and mandatory Palestine.

e) Housewives are busy making their concrete shells feel like home. Water and electricity do not always work. ______________________. The sand is coming through the tiles.

Q.10) One weekend he went absent without leave for 24 hours, and probably walked home to see his family.

a) Today we wander through Milkham’s pines in an atmosphere of autumnal tranquillity. During the first world war the scene would have been very different. ___________________. A few mother trees were spared to provide seedlings for regeneration.

b) Work across the forest was not plentiful in the run-up to the Great War and assisted passages to Australia were attractive. Two sons of the Fordingbridge Morgan family emigrated just before the war. They settled in Eumundi, a small outback community north of Brisbane where, with their agricultural and forestry skills, they found plenty of work.

c) Milkham today reveals nothing of its past to evoke such trains of thought, unless seeds have already been sown in the mind. But research in Fording bridge is bringing to life the stories behind local names on memorials here and in Australia. As they emerge they are akin to the seedlings that grew from the mother trees left when the axe-men’s work was done. __________________.

d) Bert was wounded in bayonet fighting and captured in April 1917. Frank was killed the following October. Just a month before, he was getting bombing training at Lyndhurst in the heart of the New Forest. ___________________.

e) One hundred years ago last week, after appalling cost, the Third Battle of Ypres, Passchendaele, ended. _________________. They could have been treading on planks cut from pines that once grew in Milkham. A sombre thought.

Q.11) Perhaps it’s because she wants to subvert story form.

a) I barely read literary fiction any more. When I do it is almost always American writers: Michael Chabon, Jonathan Franzen, Anne Tyler, Donna Tartt. Not only are the aforementioned brilliant writers, they are accomplished storytellers. But here, the form of storytelling and literary novel writing has become largely divorced. __________________.

b) McBride is a superb writer. But it is fascinating how she reaches out for story and then, just after halfway through, she simply doesn’t know what to do with her driving narrative voice. _________________. Or she may simply not know or care about it.

c) Screenwriters have three main tools in their box: story, story and story. ____________________. In the past, literary writers have had the luxury of ignoring this discipline. By confirming that this luxury, for most, no longer exists, the Arts Council has done us all a favour.

d) ____________________. What distinguishes great TV such as Breaking Bad, The Deuce, Six Feet Under, The Sopranos and many more is the power of the narrative drive. With the great fields of time and scope now opening up on TV, these series have become the new novels. If novelists want to compete they have to up their game.

e) I have been teaching a course at Guardian Masterclasses with John Yorke, author of a seminal text on story, Into the Woods. ___________________. It is complex – plot is one of the most mysterious and tricky of all literary techniques, which is why so many writers, I suspect, avoid it. But it is essential for any writer who wants anyone to actually read their books, rather than just be admired by a tiny coterie.

Q.12) It was the same with Christmas – I wanted to enjoy being with my family and not have any restrictions on the time we spent together.

a) Nothing else could go wrong. My marriage seemed over, I was drinking far too much and I’d pressed the self-destruct button one too many times. I knew therapy was the only option left. It was pure determination to get better that carried me through the year. ___________________.

b) A year on and I am much happier. I have changed as a person and my mental health no longer manages me; I manage it. _______________________. My complicated and abusive childhood had led to buried memories that came out as my children reached a similar age.

c) I did have a particular kind of encouragement – ill health and a doctor’s warning can be strong motivators. Once I read Carr’s book, I didn’t feel the need for a cigarette. _____________________. It feels wrong to say it out loud, but I really do feel sorry for other smokers, because they do not need to smoke and it is only their choice.

d) On New Year’s Day 2017, I made the resolution to get myself out of the £5,000 credit card debt I had accumulated. _________________. I decided to eat out only once a week and stopped having takeaways. I stopped kidding myself I could afford everything London has to offer and set the ultimate goal of one day owning my own place.

e) I felt tempted to spend more all the time – it was like having a little devil on my shoulder. I’m a real foodie, so I think it’s good I’ve been able to hold back from eating out all the time or trying new restaurants. I did keep my one holiday a year and treated myself while I was away. __________________.

Q.13) You won’t see another sportsman like him.

a) In his 27 years at the top Taylor has never hit a nine-dart checkout in the World Championship. ___________________. With 141 left on the board Taylor hit treble 20, then treble 19. One final dart stood between him and yet another moment of history but Taylor clipped the wire on double 12 and his arrow slid to the wrong side of the line.

b) Taylor smiled and joked with Cross over the water jugs but it was a crucial moment and he knew it. His darts did not reach the same level again in the set as Cross cruised to a 4-1 lead. ___________________. He missed a double six in the first leg of the eighth and a double four in the third to let Taylor in to claim the set and cut the deficit to 6-2.

c) Ultimately it was to no avail. _________________. He held the first leg in 13 darts and went out on a double 20. The second was a cruise as Taylor failed to reach 100 three times.

d) He celebrated simply by tapping his hands on his bald head, as if to check everything was still there. In the crowd they started up a new number; ‘Robbie Cross’ to the tune of KC and the Sunshine Band’s Give It Up. Taylor had already decided to do exactly that.

e) “This game has changed my life. I’ve won my first world title. But tonight is all about Phil Taylor. __________________. I’d like to say thank you to him but at the same time I played well tonight.”

Q.14) Nothing speaks more elegantly to Chennai’s death wish than what governments are doing to the wetlands in North Chennai.

a) Since December 2015, Chennai has limped from one extreme weather-related shock to another — the floods, the failed monsoon of 2016, Cyclone Vardah, and now the water crisis. Chennai’s defining element is water. But the city shows scant regard for this precious but dangerous resource. _________________.

b) In June, the State government conceded the Government of India-owned Kamarajar Port Ltd’s (KPL) request to divert 1,000 acres of the hydrologically sensitive Ennore wetlands for industrial installations that are best built on dry land. The proposal is pending Central government clearance. If permitted, KPL’s dream will turn out to be Chennai’s worst nightmare, far worse than the 2015 floods.

c) The identities of the architects of the last disaster may not be clear. __________________. But such assumptions no longer hold good. Political leaders and bureaucrats have been told that the creek is a protected waterbody, and that encroaching on it is both illegal and dangerous.

d) The Cooum and the Adyar are elite, high-status rivers, running through elite neighbourhoods within the city. Purging the edges of the poor is seen as integral to the wholesome restoration of these rivers. Contrastingly, the Kosasthalaiyar and Ennore Creek are seen as working-class waterbodies. ________________.

e) If plans to fill the creek persist, Chennai will have no future. The precious freshwater aquifer that Chennai draws from will be lost to salt. The precious freshwater that falls from the sky will turn the city into a watery grave.

Q.15) Yet the most important and sensitive of the UK’s external relationships is with the Irish Republic.

a) Seen from many parts of the UK, this claim of neglect may seem perverse. ___________________. Scotland, where the divide over Brexit connects with the still-simmering argument over independence, is in some respects the same. Wales, where economic inequality helped, as elsewhere, to drive up the leave vote, now marches decisively to its own devolved drum.

b) The health of the United Kingdom matters for us. But it also matters for our neighbours. The future relationship with the EU is the most obviously pressing aspect of this. ____________________.

c) Spain, in particular, watches the stresses and strains of the UK, at the same time as it grapples with its own civil society and governance issues in Catalonia. __________________________. In one form or another it was ever thus. Most of Ireland has been an independent country for nearly a century, but it is bound to the UK and the rest of these islands in ways even France cannot match.

d) In part, that is because the very notion of a renewed UK is so actively contested by so many. It is disputed most obviously by the nationalist populations of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Distant independence dreamers also exist in places from Cornwall to Yorkshire – and even in London. ______________________.

e) One is that Brexit or a Corbyn government would somehow magic away the need for reform of the UK. _________________. The solutions to these questions are far from purely governmental. They rest on civil society and, ultimately, on the way we think and act.

Q.16) Europe has no tech giants of its own.

a) We don’t yet know the full picture. In particular, we don’t know if Russian-promoted bots, trolls and online ads had an impact that in any way altered the outcome of the US election. At this stage, to claim they did may be crediting Vladimir Putin with more power than he actually wields.__________________.

b) Still, it would be wrong to think this affects America alone. Europe and Britain are directly concerned by what the US investigations will uncover._________________. But the transatlantic relationship has a new dimension to explore: the online world.

c) Russian interference in Europe’s politics and its information space is not new, of course. Its roots lie in old KGB disinformation methods, now actively combined with new technologies. In Britain, the question has taken on an important new twist, with growing calls for parliamentary scrutiny of the financing of the pro-Brexit campaign, whose social media dimension mattered greatly. ______________________.

d) The ramifications of this debate are huge. _________________. If that turns out to be true, then we are looking at an entirely new world – one whose complexities we may only be starting to fathom. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, written 70 years ago, contained not just “newspeak”, “facecrime” and surveillance screens.

e) In fact, it’s only starting to build its single digital market. So the US probe into how Silicon Valley platforms are used as Trojan horses by foreign autocracies serves as a groundbreaking exercise. Marietje Schaake, a Dutch MEP, notes that “the digital revolution has led to a redistribution of power, but not to a redistribution of accountability and oversight”.

Q.17) This feels like an excellent subject to explore, as we step into January after the gluttony and indulgence of Christmas and New Year.

a) The theme for this month’s reading group is redemption. __________________. Heck, redemption is a good theme after 2017, full stop. If you’re anything like me, you’ll want to find a way back to positivity after the anger, frustration and fear of the past 12 months.

b) And even if you’re feeling fine about everything, this remains a fantastic thread in fiction. Should we feel inclined, we can wheel out the seriously big guns. ______________________. Then there are books about rebuilding life after a betrayal, such as Milan Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

c) We could look at Pip’s attempts to redeem himself with Magwitch and Joe Gargery in Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations. There’s Tom Jones. There’s Wilkie Collins’s The Woman in White. There’s Milton’s Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained.

d) Redemption is a theme that has been fundamental to literature since year dot, so there are a lot of fine books to choose from. All you have to do to put one forward for consideration is to name it in the comments. I’m looking forward to reading your suggestions. _______________.

e) There are also books about forgiving yourself, such as William Styron’s Sophie’s Choice. The very title of Ian McEwan’s Atonement suggests how well it might work. I also can’t resist suggesting two Michael Ondaatje novels: the magical In the Skin of a Lion or The English Patient, both of which feature characters attempting to silence demons in their pasts. ______________.

Q.18) Time to go on a serious diet and shed this excess baggage.

a) New Year’s resolutions are crap. The entire exercise is rife with failure and self-loathing, and you, dearest, have no need to make any. ____________________. You are perfect exactly the way you are.

b) Between SoulCycle, Soylent, and biohacking, Silicon Valley execs stay pretty fit. But some of the most powerful and valuable properties in tech – social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube – are looking like they might have overindulged on some empty calories in their quest to consume our every thought, package it as content, and sell advertisements against it. Russian bots, white supremacists, and American presidents are all weighing down social media platforms. _________________________.

c) Mark Zuckerberg’s 2017 resolution was to travel to all 50 US states. The resulting tour of dairy farms, black churches, and oil rigs helped the billionaire Facebook CEO learn about pressing issues for Americans, like how to drive a tractor and that the opioid crisis exists. “I started this year as an engineer and now I’m wrapping it up thinking of myself as more of a community builder too,” he said. ____________________.

d) For 2018, we’d like to suggest that Zuck keep traveling, this time to foreign destinations where his social network is perhaps less of a community builder than it is a democracy destroying genocide enabler. He could start with Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Bolivia, Cambodia, Serbia and Slovakia – six countries where Facebook unilaterally imposed major change to the news feed that stifled the ability of independent news outlets to reach their audiences. He might then spend some time in countries where his own “free basics” program has reduced the internet to a walled garden of Facebook-approved content.

e) Infinitely more fun than reflecting on one’s own shortcomings is diagnosing the problems of other, richer, more powerful entities. It is in that spirit that we have created a list of New Year’s resolutions for the tech industry. Our resolution will be to continue doing our best to hold them to account, which, like the most successful resolutions, is what we were already planning to do anyway.__________________.

Q.19) It is tough to watch and it is the second time we have come here and the game is gone in the first half and it’s too little, too late.

a) The 18-year-old Smith had a hand in five of Quins’ seven tries and contributed 15 points with the boot. He was again named as an apprentice in Eddie Jones’s England squad on Friday but this was a masterful performance. Had he been wearing white he would not have looked out of place. ___________________.

b) For Northampton it was the latest horror show and they are making a habit of them of late. It is now 11 straight defeats in major competitions, they sit 10th in the Premiership and have not won a match of any real consequence since September. Alan Gaffney takes over on 1 January until the end of the season but, for all of his experience, he cannot work miracles and Northampton’s problems undoubtedly run deep considering this was the third time they have conceded 50 points in this disastrous campaign.____________________.

c) Before the match, Ben Foden had suggested that laziness had played a part in Northampton’s losing run but Alan Dickens, the beleaguered interim head coach, denied that claim. “They work very hard. For that to be suggested is poor,” he said. “They work hard week in, week out. ___________________________.

d) Harlequins, meanwhile, have a habit of blowing hot and cold but this was certainly a day for the former. In addition to Smith, Chris Robshaw, Danny Care and Jamie Chisholm – a yellow card notwithstanding – all caught the eye. Indeed, after the pre-match pyrotechnics that accompany these annual festive fixtures, the onfield fireworks came exclusively from Quins in front of a crowd of nearly 78,000. __________________________.

e) After Mike Brown swept back to make a covering tackle on Luther Burrell, it was wave after wave of Harlequins attacking. The first try was scored by Dave Ward, who is among the quickest hookers in the Premiership and cruised past Harry Mallinder. The Northampton full-back’s afternoon would only get worse._________________________.

Q.20) The treaty did not stop the French from launching shells containing a primitive tear gas on German lines in 1914 but their aim had been disruption.

a) On 2 August this year I noticed a small piece on the BBC news website about a gas attack in Syria. Accounts of the appalling situation in Syria and new devastating attacks seem to be almost a daily feature in the news. What I found especially depressing about the short item that made the news that day, was the alleged use of chlorine gas. ____________________.

b) Chlorine also has a much darker history in conflicts stretching back to the first world war. Its use at Ypres on 22 April 1915 marked a new era in chemical warfare. The possible threat of gas attacks had resulted in a treaty signed in 1899 prohibiting their use. _______________________.

c) The theory went that the pale green or yellow gas would be slowly pushed over no-mans-land towards the French lines by the wind. The heavier than air gas would then sink into the trenches. The hope was that the choking fumes would cause panic and chaos. _____________________.

d) Canisters of chlorine were amassed along a fifteen mile stretch of German lines. When the wind eventually turned in the Germans’ favour (the prevailing wind was from the French trenches towards the German lines) the plan proceeded exactly as Haber had predicted. ____________________. But the Germans failed to capitalise on the gaping breach in French lines.

e) The indiscriminate nature of poison gas and the harrowing effects produced in the human body seems especially callous and inhumane. Chlorine can attack the body in a number of ways producing devastating chemical burns. A complex series of chemical reactions is involved as chlorine reacts with fats, proteins and other material of the body.



1) a

2) c

3) c

4) e

5) a

6) c

7) e

8) b

9) b

10) d

11) b

12) e

13) e

14) b

15) c

16) e

17) a

18) b

19) c

20) b

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