_Aspirants can find the important editorial from the 17th April – THE HINDU in the video discussion which is provided below. 

Managing an election

While the major contenders on the political scene in Karnataka — the Congress, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and the Janata Dal (Secular) or JD(S) — are yet to release their manifestos, the full-blast campaign that they have unleashed has made it amply clear that their priority does not lie in mounting a programme and seeking their mandate, and eventually accountability on that ground, but merely in winning the elections.

Sound bite games

They have a set of tactics up their sleeves to win, and have chosen to reinforce traditional modes of politicking, by employing new techniques and imagery of communication. Elections, far from being an occasion to reformulate and reorder common interests, have become in their hands an endorsement to govern yet for another term. They are turned into sophistries of managing castes and communities, sound bites, image-projection and communication skills, and garnering resources for the same. There are no differences between political parties with regard to these indicators, although their capacity to deploy them and tap resources hugely varies.

Apart from projecting their respective parties and leadership as being immensely upright, efficient, fair, development-prone and non-partisan, political parties have attempted to reach out to the symbolic wealth of communities and castes, promised bounties to agitating farmers, held discussions with key constituencies such as business leaders and the youth, organised mammoth public rallies, and conducted padayatras and road shows. The Siddaramaiah regime has resorted to extensive, and probably expensive, use of print and electronic media to advertise its achievements, the BJP and the JD(S) being a poor second and third in this regard so far. While the BJP is known for its astute use of media and image-crafting, it seems to have been busy so far in a reconnaissance exercise to tone up its party in the State, and its performance in this regard hitherto cannot hold a mirror up to what it would do in the next few days prior to voting scheduled on May 12.

One saw BJP president Amit Shah prostrating before the 110-year-old revered Shri Shivakumara Swamiji of Siddaganga Mutt in Tumkur. As for Congress president Rahul Gandhi, his body language expressed a degree of comfort while visiting the great Shankara Mutt at Sringeri, given the long association of the family with the advaita tradition of Shankaracharya, but he seemed ill at ease at several other shrines. While Swami Nirmalanandji of the Adichunchanagiri Mutt is known to be close to Yogi Adityanath, the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, and Mr. Shah, who was one of the first to call on him as part of his electoral rounds, Mr. Gandhi was not too far behind. Chief Minister Siddaramaiah also employed the long-term demand of the Veerashaiva Lingayats for a separate religious tag to win over a section by recommending this demand to the Centre through a Cabinet resolution. The BJP shouted hoarse, but everything seemed fair in the electoral war.

Tactical innovation

There was some tactical innovation too. Mr. Gandhi bonded with top State leaders of the Congress over pakodas and vadas at roadside tea stalls, and fish delicacies on the coast. There was widespread use of selfies including at Namma Metro. The BJP, attuned to sterner patriarchal ways, however, took the bait, by making its chief ministerial candidate live in slums for a day or two, travel short distances in an auto rickshaw and eat in Dalit households. H.D. Kumaraswamy, the JD(S) chief ministerial aspirant, responded to the plebian icing of his counterparts by projecting himself as ‘Kumaranna’, the protective big brother, and resorted to a highly personalised style of campaigning. Such rehearsed gestures are at variance with the everyday life of the top political leaders of this country. However, they have their value in connecting to people, but as independent variables have little to offer in reinforcing participation in the ongoing life of a democratic polity or enhancing the quality of the life of people.

The political rhetoric mounted by the Congress revolved around demonetisation, Goods and Services Tax, the Rafale deal, bank fraud, and the creeping authoritarianism of the Narendra Modi-Amit Shah duo, vis-à-vis the performance of the Siddaramaiah regime. It also accused the JD(S) of being the BJP’s B-team. The BJP charged Mr. Siddaramaiah’s government with corruption, minority partisanship, insensitivity to farming distress, divisive approach with regard to the Lingayat legacy and donning the false mask of religiosity. Mr. Kumaraswamy tended to focus on the great record of his family in politics, promising a shift of policy to agrarian concerns. This political rhetoric, however, has made little headway in grappling with the great challenges that confront the State.

The real issues

If we employ public reasoning as a lens, regional disparity clearly emerges as the most stark issue. A vast region of the State comprising Bidar, Kalaburagi, Yadgir, Vijayapura, Bagalkot, Raichur, Koppal, Gadag and Ballari districts suffers from overdetermined deprivation. These districts were peripheral to colonial provinces or centres of princely states; are part of the rain-shadow belt; and register less than half of the average Human Development Index of Bengaluru and coastal Karnataka. With landless labourers forming an average 40% of rural households, many households have to opt for seasonal migration to neighbouring regions to survive. There is a higher concentration of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Muslims in this region. It is also caught in the vicious circle of patron-client relationships, under the tutelage of the ‘big’ man, the ‘dora’ or ‘sahukar’.

At the same time, this is also the cultural heartland of the State: great dynasties such as the Chalukyas, the Bahmanis, the Adil Shahis and the Vijayanagar empire flourished here; the Urdu language was nurtured and Sufism found a pervasive presence. It is in this region that the Kannada language and script came into their own; Basavanna’s Linga worship took root and Vachana literature flourished; and the great Dasa Sahitya and Carnatic music found an early home. The inclusion of much of this region under Article 371(J) has brought only a notional flow of resources to the region. It looks for a major initiative like what Sharad Pawar fashioned for Marathwada in the early 1990s.

A distinct cultural value of pluralism regulated the interaction of sects, cults, traditions and languages in the region forming Karnataka today. In fact, this pluralism was the encompassing bond when Islam and Christianity registered their presence in the region from diverse sites. This pluralism held on its own even when passions generated by Kannada linguistic identity threatened to displace it in the 1950s and 1960s. There is a widespread feeling today that this pluralism is under attack, through a vicious design of exclusion.

Rural-urban divide

The rural-urban disconnect is far wider here compared to any other State in southern India with immense resources and opportunities concentrated in Bengaluru. While it denies the poor, the migrant and the refugee a decent living space in the city, it sucks resources from the hinterland to it in umpteen ways. While the capital itself needs to find its breathing space, no serious development can be envisaged without developing nodal centres of development all across the State and particularly in northern Karnataka.

The record of employment generation in Karnataka, although impressive compared to many other States, is far off the promise made by the Congress in 2013. The State holds immense possibilities of generating alternative modes of employment. This requires a different approach than crunching numbers that the bureaucracy is familiar with.

It was the right time for Mr. Siddaramaiah and the Congress to propose a substantive agenda to reinforce democracy and equality in the State. But the Congress, desperate to win the election, has chosen to ignore tomorrow for today. The BJP is driven by a single point agenda of proving its invincibility than reinforcing democracy. The JD(S) clearly lives in the past, and has little to offer by way of laying the long-term foundations of democracy and development in the State.


1) Manifestos

Meaning: A public declaration of policy and aims, especially one issued before an election by a political party or candidate.

Example:  “He may fudge key issues in the Labour manifesto”

Synonyms: Platform, Programme

2) Unleashed

Meaning: Cause (a strong or violent force) to be released or become unrestrained.

Example: “The failure of the talks could unleash more fighting”

3) Amply

Meaning: Enough or more than enough; plentifully.

Example: “The persistent reader is amply rewarded”

4) Mounting

Meaning: Organize and initiate (a campaign or other course of action).

Example: “The company had successfully mounted takeover bids”  

Synonyms: Organise, Stage

5) Tactics

Meaning: An action or strategy carefully planned to achieve a specific end.

Example: “The minority attempted to control the Council by a delaying tactic”

Synonyms: Strategy, Scheme

6) Reinforce

Meaning: Strengthen (an existing feeling, idea, or habit).

Example: “The next few months reinforced my opinion of Vince as a man of his word”

Synonyms: Strength, Fortify

7) Politicking (politic)

Meaning: Engage in political activity.

Example: “The cumbersome bureaucracy and politicking of the European Community”

8) Endorsement

Meaning: The action of endorsing someone or something.

Example: “The issue of full independence received overwhelming endorsement”

Synonyms: Support, Backing

Antonyms: Opposition

9) Sophistries

Meaning: The use of clever but false arguments, especially with the intention of deceiving.

Example: “Trying to argue that I had benefited in any way from the disaster was pure sophistry”  

10) Garnering

Meaning: Gather or collect (something, especially information or approval).

Example: “The police struggled to garner sufficient evidence”  

Synonyms: Gather, Collect

11) Deploy

Meaning: Bring into effective action.

Example: “Small states can often deploy resources more freely”  

Synonyms: Use, Utilize

12) Agitating

Meaning: Campaign to arouse public concern about an issue in the hope of prompting action.

Example: “They agitated for a reversal of the decision”

Synonyms: Campaign, Strive

13) Mammoth

Meaning: Huge.

Example: “A mammoth corporation”

Synonyms: Huge, Enormous

Antonyms: Tiny

14) Rallies

Meaning: A mass meeting of people making a political protest or showing support for a cause.

Example: “A banned nationalist rally”

Synonyms: Meeting, Gathering

15) Astute

Meaning: Having or showing an ability to accurately assess situations or people and turn this to one’s advantage.

Example: “An astute businessman”  

Synonyms: Shrewd, Sharp

Antonyms: Stupid

16) Reconnaissance

Meaning: Military observation of a region to locate an enemy or ascertain strategic features.

Example: “An excellent aircraft for low-level reconnaissance”  

Synonyms: Survey, Exploration

17) Hitherto

Meaning: Until now or until the point in time under discussion.

Example: “Hitherto part of French West Africa, Benin achieved independence in 1960”  

Synonyms: Previously, Formerly

18) Shrines

Meaning: A place regarded as holy because of its associations with a divinity or a sacred person or relic, marked by a building or other construction.

Example: “The medieval pilgrim route to the shrine of St James”

Synonyms: Holy place, Temple

19) Hoarse

Meaning: (Of a person’s voice) sounding rough and harsh, typically as the result of a sore throat or of shouting.

Example: “A hoarse whisper”

Synonyms: Rough, Harsh

Antonyms: Mellow, Soft

20) Delicacies

Meaning: A choice or expensive food.

Example: “Traditional Japanese delicacies”  

Synonyms: Dainty, Treat

21) Patriarchal

Meaning: Relating to or denoting a system of society or government controlled by men.

Example: “A patriarchal society”

22) Bait

Meaning: Food placed on a hook or in a net, trap, or fishing area to entice fish or other animals as prey.

Example: “Herrings make excellent bait for pike”  

Synonyms: Lure, Decoy

23) Rehearsed

Meaning: Supervise (a performer or group) during a rehearsal.

Example: “He listened to Charlie rehearsing the band”  

Synonyms: Train, Prepare

24) Rhetoric

Meaning: Language designed to have a persuasive or impressive effect, but which is often regarded as lacking in sincerity or meaningful content.

Example:  “All we have from the Opposition is empty rhetoric”

Synonyms: Bombast, Pomposity

25) Creeping

Meaning: Move slowly and carefully in order to avoid being heard or noticed.

Example: “He crept downstairs, hardly making any noise”

Synonyms: Crawl, Wriggle

26) Divisive

Meaning: Tending to cause disagreement or hostility between people.

Example: “The highly divisive issue of abortion”

Synonyms: Isolating, Schismatic

Antonyms: Unifying

27) Promising

Meaning: Showing signs of future success.

Example: “A promising film actor”

Synonyms: Good, Hopeful

Antonyms: Unfavourable, Ominous

28) Agrarian

Meaning: Relating to cultivated land or the cultivation of land.

Example: “Brazil is rapidly diversifying its agrarian economy”

29) Grappling

Meaning: Struggle to deal with or overcome (a difficulty or challenge).

Example: “Other towns are still grappling with the problem”

Synonyms: Tackle, Confront

30) Stark

Meaning: Unpleasantly or sharply clear.

Example: “His position is in stark contrast to that of Curran”  

Synonyms: Blunt, Bald

Antonyms: Disguised

31) Deprivation

Meaning: The damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society.

Example: “Low wages mean that 3.75 million people suffer serious deprivation”

Synonyms: Poverty, Penury

Antonyms: Wealth

32) Rain-shadow

Meaning: A region having little rainfall because it is sheltered from prevailing rain-bearing winds by a range of hills.

33) Heartland

Meaning: The central or most important part of a country, area, or field of activity.

Example: “Wildlife sites in the heartland of Russia”

34) Cults

Meaning: A relatively small group of people having religious beliefs or practices regarded by others as strange or as imposing excessive control over members.

Example: “A network of Satan-worshipping cults”

Synonyms: Sect, Denomination

35) Linguistic

Meaning: Relating to language or linguistics.

Example: “A child’s linguistic ability”  

Synonyms: Semantic, Lingual

36) Vicious

Meaning: Deliberately cruel or violent.

Example: “A vicious assault”

Synonyms: Brutal, Savage

Antonyms: Gentle, Kindly

37) Hinterland

Meaning: The remote areas of a country away from the coast or the banks of major rivers.

Example: “The hinterland of southern Italy”

Synonyms: The back of beyond, The middle of nowhere

Antonyms: Civilization

38) Umpteen

Meaning: Indefinitely many; a lot of.

Example: “You need umpteen pieces of identification to cash a cheque”

39) Envisaged

Meaning: Contemplate or conceive of as a possibility or a desirable future event.

Example: “The Rome Treaty envisaged free movement across frontiers”

Synonyms: Foresee, Predict

40) Bureaucracy

Meaning: A system of government in which most of the important decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives.

Synonyms: Civil service, Administration

Want to learn more , Check the Previous Day of THE HINDU EDITORIAL which was published in our Bankersdaily and learn new words to enhance your Vocabulary.


Aspirants can also check the previous month THE HINDU EDITORIAL and can improve the vocabulary list & can ace the exams. Learning the language is easy and this will make the process simple.