THE HINDU EDITORIAL like many other sections will be the imperative one to crack the forthcoming exams like SBI PO 2018, SBI Clerk 2018 and NABARD Grade “A” Officer. Learn new vocabulary words routinely.


Architecture of the mandate

Mathematics is about numbers, and mathematics is an exact science. The addition, subtraction, division and multiplication of numbers in ganita is about getting problems right. Just that. Right. And a satisfaction is derived, both mathematical and aesthetic, in getting the exercise right. Precision is its sole dharma. Numbers, after a problem is done, stand still. They do not pull at each other, jumping from a plus to a minus, from the times or multiplication sign into an obelus or division sign. A sum does not try to or want to alter itself. The problem-solver or sum-beholder derives satisfaction from the purity of its precision.

Integrity of the arithmetic

Elections too are about numbers and are an exact exercise. But only until the sum is reached. That is, until the Election Commission finishes its calculations and declares the ‘sum’. The Election Commission counts and then announces the counts, and once it has done that, retires. After that has been done, the President in the case of Lok Sabha elections or the Governor in the case of Vidhan Sabha elections takes over. It is in their hands that the result of the counting converts itself into the pattern of seats in the elected House. The President or Governor then becomes the keeper of the sum’s integrity and has to see that the pattern of the sum is honoured by the pattern of the seats. In other words, the architecture of the sum is retained by the architecture of their power. The keeper has to see that the integrity of that architecture is not garbled to create a house different in shape from the blueprint of the sum’s design.

What was the blueprint of the design that the people of Karnataka drew? The blueprint came in four folds. All of us know them now only too well.

The first fold for the single largest party was the Bharatiya Janata Party, or BJP’s.

The second fold for the second largest party was the Congress’s.

The third fold for the third largest party was that of the Janata Dal (Secular), or JD(S).

The fourth fold, which showed the first three in a pie, gave their relative shares: the first was smaller, if only slightly, than the second and third seen together.

We have to switch now from designs, graphs, squares and pies to what the Governor had to make of this four-fold design. We have to switch from arithmetic and geometry to a kind of algebra, the study of mathematical symbols, the rules for their handling, their groups, rings, fields. In other words, we have to switch now from how to move from the numbers to their mandate and see how a House is to be made from out of its mandate, a House for the mandate of the gana to dwell in. In this task, though working on and with numbers, a President or a Governor cannot function like a calculator. His task is mathematics plus ethics.

The Governor’s options

The Governor of Karnataka saw and may well have felt somewhat like this: If only Party One had just crossed the halfway mark and got a simple majority, his task would have been simple. He would have called its leader to form the government. But that did not happen. The people of Karnataka voted in greater strength against Party Number One than for it.

If only Party Two and Party Three had entered the election as a joint team, in what is called a pre-poll alliance, his work would again have been simple. He would have had to call that two-coloured rainbow to name its leader and invite him to take the oaths of office. But that too did not happen. The majority of the people of Karnataka voted against the BJP but they did not vote cohesively for the Congress-JD(S) combine.

So, the Governor did not get it all that simple. But was what he did get all that complicated? Not really.

Though not a pre-poll alliance, Parties Two and Three did get together with a verve and vim they did not show before the elections to become one, and not only drew up a joint list of the newly elected MLAs to be but also chose a joint leader, unconditionally. There is nothing in any electoral law or court verdict to say that a post-poll alliance is ab initio null, void and to be disregarded. True, a pre-poll alliance is a neater, more up-front arrangement, but a post-poll one is not out of order.

The numbers in Karnataka were clear. They showed the people’s integrated will, albeit in two frames hinged together requiring Parties Two and Three to be asked to form the government and seek the approval of the House by its users on its floor. If defeated, then ask Party One to try its luck. That has not happened.

Had Party Two and Party Three not come together post-poll, Governor Vajubhai Vala could have ignored the fact that the non-BJP MLAs outnumber the BJP MLAs — and left it to the Chief Minister or the putative leader of the House to navigate his majority through the first confidence vote. But he has decided and that is that.

What now? With the two parties having come together, and out-numbering the BJP MLAs, the real test of their political integrity lies in their staying together and defeating the Yeddyurappa government in the first confidence vote. There is only one way in which they can do that. And that is by staying together, staying determined, and voting on vote day unitedly. Will they let their unity and determination, numerical strength, numerical integrity de diminished?

How may that be done? We know the way that happens.

The principle of it

With millions of other Indians I have a political position that opposes the ideology of the BJP and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). But I also have a sense, again with millions of others, of a political ethics that tells me if the Congress had been in the position of single largest party in Karnataka as the BJP is in, and if the BJP and the JD(S) had got together post-poll as the single largest group, and if Governor Vala, citing the single largest party line, had called the Congress to form the government, I would have said exactly the same thing I have said here – in the reverse.

The lesson of the Karnataka Kanda is this: the parties opposed to the BJP and RSS’s ideology must work together from the word go, and not let the imponderables of post-election decision-making imperil the will of the people.

b) Arbitrary, capricious: on Karnataka mandate

In summarily ignoring the claim of H.D. Kumaraswamy, Karnataka Governor Vajubhai Vala abandoned both propriety and common sense, acting in a politically partisan manner unbecoming of his office. Mr. Kumaraswamy was elected leader of the Janata Dal (Secular) Legislature Party and, with the declared support of the Congress, had the backing of a majority in the newly elected Assembly. The leader of the BJP Legislature Party, B.S. Yeddyurappa, offered no demonstrable proof of majority, but was invited to form the government, and given all of 15 days to prove he had the confidence of the House, solely on the basis of being the leader of the single largest party. Far from ushering in a stable government, the Governor unbolted the doors to allow room for the BJP to try to engineer defections. In situations such as these, the Constitution allows an element of discretion to the Governor, but this power was never meant to be used arbitrarily and capriciously. In defence of the Governor’s action, BJP leaders have cited the Bommai judgment, which ruled on the course open for the Governor in the event of a Chief Minister losing majority in the House, but offered no opinion on a post-poll situation, where it said the Governor had to “invite the leader of the party commanding majority in the House or the single largest party/group to form the government.” Nothing in the judgment privileges the single largest party over the largest group when it comes to being given the first shot at forming a government.

The BJP leaders have now staked out positions that are at odds with those they adopted after the Assembly elections in Manipur and Goa, when the single largest party, the Congress, was denied a chance to form the government. Union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad had a weak defence on this turnaround: the Congress, he claimed, had not staked a claim in those two States. The Congress has taken the fight to the Supreme Court, which has asked the Attorney General to produce the letters written by Mr. Yeddyurappa to the Governor in support of his claim. When the members of the Congress and the JD(S) together constitute a majority in the House, it is unclear what letters Mr. Yeddyurappa could have presented to the Governor. No matter how things turn out from here on, the BJP has emerged as a bad loser. The party played a smart hand in Goa and Manipur to deny the Congress, but is unable to accept defeat in Karnataka when beaten at its own game. Politics is not always about reaching for power; sometimes it is also about learning to sit in the Opposition. After all, power is only one of the means of politics, not one of its ends. The BJP may have bested the Congress in Karnataka, but it may not have paid the price for this victory yet.

“A fresh look at urban governance is necessary as migration from rural areas picks up pace”

Cities are economically vibrant spaces around the world and draw a large number of rural migrants looking for better prospects. This is a sustained trend, particularly in developing countries now, as production, jobs and markets
get concentrated. More evidence of this comes from the UN Department of  Economic and Social Afairs, which has released its 2018 Revision of the World Urbanization Prospects. Forecasting for the year 2050, the UN agency estimates that the percentage of urban residents in India would be 52.8, compared to 34 today, while Delhi would edge past Tokyo as the world’s most populous city by 2028. India, China and Nigeria are expected to lead other countries and account for 35% of the projected growth in urban population by mid-century. This forecast
frames the challenge before developing countries, India in particular. Urbanisation in the country is a complex process, since it is defned not by a constant migration of rural residents but by the fow of workers, mostly men,
and the expansion of big cities through the addition of neighbouring towns. Among governments there is a strong policy emphasis on improving facilities in rural areas, indicating a political preference for reduced migration to
urban centres, although there is a natural economic magnetism to cities. The imperative before the Centre and State governments is to come up with policies that provide adequate services in the villages, while investing in cities
to ensure that their high levels of productivity and efciency are not compromised.

Even with only a third of the population living in cities, “civic anarchy is rampant” in the country. Housing defcits have led to the proliferation of slums, lack of enforcement of building norms has left the metros heavily
congested, and poor investment in public transport has fuelled unsustainable levels of private vehicle use. Moreover, as recent data released by the World Health Organisation show, 14 Indian cities are among the top 20 worldwide
with the worst air quality profles for fne particulate matter of 2.5 micrometres. Most cities are also unable to collect and dispose of municipal waste scientifcally, and simply dump them in the suburbs. Such a dismal scenario
can only get worse with higher population concentrations, unless city governments come into their own. Even two-and-a-half decades after municipal


laws were reformed, elected Mayors lack the stature and authority to introduce urgently needed reforms.
Now is the time to take a fresh look at urban governance. While the Centre’s goal of “homes for all” by 2022 is laudable, it is unlikely to be realised without a push from the States, and the launch of schemes driven by
innovation and low-cost approaches. Augmenting rental housing should be a priority within the plan. Integrating green spaces, open commons and wetlandswill make cities cleaner and aesthetically richer.

Vibrant – Active Complex process
சிக்கலான சசயல்மறற

Emphasis – வலியறத்தல்

Imperative – important

Rampant – பரவலாக

Proliferation-increase in rapid

Dismal – மமாசமான

Stature – உயரம்

Laudable – பாராட்டத்தக்க

Augmenting – Increase

Aesthetically – கறலயணர்வ

“உலக சகாதார நிறவனம் , காற்ற மாச பற்றி Air Quality Index
சவளியிட்டயிரக்கிறார்கள். அதில் இந்தியாவின் நிறல எப்படயிரக்க , கிராமங்களில் மக்கள் எப்பட வாழ்த்தசகாண்ட இரக்காங்க, இந்த நிறலறமயில் காற்றற சத்தம் சசய்ய அரசாங்கம்
என்சனன்ன சலறககள் சவளியிட்டரக்கிறார்கள் , என்பறத அறிய இரக்கிமறாம் .”
நகர்பறங்கசளல்லாம் மிகவம் பிரகாசமாக வளர்ந்த வரகிறத . அமத சமயத்தில் கிராமப்பற மக்கள் நகரங்கறள மநாக்கி சசல்கிறார்கள் . மக்கியமாக, கிராமப்பற மக்கள் மவறல , சந்றதமயமான நகரம், உற்பத்தி ஆகியறவ காரண கர்த்தாவாக உள்ளத எப்மபாதம் , நகரத்றத மநாக்கி நகரம் கிராம மக்களக்க . இறத உறதி படத்தியத , தற்மபாத 2018 ன் உலக நகரமயமாக்கதல் சகாள்றக ஐ சவளியிட்ட ஐ .நா மற்றம் சமக விவகாரங்கள் தறற .

2050 ல் இந்தியாவினறடய நிறலறம எப்படயிரக்கம் , என்ற ஐ. நா. அறிக்றக
சவளியிட்டள்ளத. அதில் நகர்ப்பறங்கறள 2050 ல் 52.8 ஆக உயர்ந்திரக்கம், தற்மபாத 34 ஆக உள்ளத. 2028 க்கள், சடல்லி, மடாக்கிமயா நகரத்றத மிஞ்சம் , உலகத்திமலமய மிக அதிக மக்கள் சதாறக சகாண்ட நகரம் என சபயர் எடக்கம் . இந்தியா, சீனா மற்றம் றநஜீரியா ஆகிய நாடகள் மற்ற நாடகறள விட மன்னக்க சசல்லம் , மக்கள் சதாறகயில்! (சபாரளாதரத்தில் அல்ல) அமதமபால, 2050 ல் நகர்ப்பற மக்கள் சதாறக 35% மன்மனற்றம் அறடந்திரக்கம். இத வளர்ந்த வரம் நாடகளக்க மிகப்சபரிய பின்னறடவ , கறிப்பாக இந்தியாவிற்க. நகரமயமாக்கதல் என்பத ஒர நாட்டனறடய சிக்கலான சசயல்மறற , அத இன்னம் ஒர நிறலயான சகாள்றகயில் இல்றல .சபரம்பாளான மக்கள் நகரங்கறள மநாக்கி சசல்வதால் , கறிப்பாக ஆண்கள் சசல்வதால் , நகரங்கள் விரிவறடகிறத.


இந்தியா அரசாங்கம் ஒர உறதியான சலறககள் கிராமபற மக்களக்க வழங்க இரப்பதால் , நகரத்றத மநாக்கி நகரம் நிறலறய தடக்கலாம் . என்னதா அரசாங்கம் சசய்தாலம் , நகரங்கறள மநாக்கி நகர்தல் என்பத “சபாரளாதார காந்தமாக” உள்ளத. அமத சமயத்தில் நகரபரங்களில் சசய்யம் சலறககள்யாவம், அந்த நகரத்திற்க ஈட சகாடக்கமடயாத .

மன்றில் ஒர பங்க (அதாவத 33.33%) மக்கள் நகரங்களில் வாழ்கிறார்கள் . இறத,
நகரசம்மந்தமான சட்டமில்லா நிறலறயத்தான் “civic anarchy is rampant”ஐ கறிக்கிறத.
இந்த மக்கள் சதாறக அதிகரிப்ப என்பத வளர்த்த சகாண்மட வரகிறத . வீடகள் இல்லா
நிறலறமயால், பாமர நிறலறம ஏற்படகிறத . சபரம்பாளான நகர வீடகள் சபரம் சநரக்கடயில் கட்டறமக்கப்பட்டள்ளத. இதற்க கரணம், சரிவர கட்டட சட்டத்றத றகயாள தனமம . மமலம், மக்களால் சபரம்பாளம் தனியார் மபாக்கவரத்றதமய உபமயாகிக்கப்படகிறத (விறல மலிமவ காரணம்), அரசாங்க மபாக்கவரத்த உபமயாகிப்பத கறறவ (விறல உயர்மவ, உபமயாகிக்காமதார் உயர). இந்த நிறலறமயில், தற்மபாத உலக சகாதார நிறவனம் ஓர் அறிக்றகயில் , உலகளவில் காற்ற மாசபட்ட நகரங்களில், இந்தியாவினறடய 14 நகரங்கள் உள்ளத. இந்த 14 நகரங்களிலம் நண்தகள்கள்2.5mm வறரக்கம் இரக்கிறத. நம்ம நகரங்களில், சபரம்பாளான இடங்களில் மனிசிபல் கப்றபகறள அகற்ற இயலா நிறல .

சில சமயங்களில் அந்த கப்றபகறள பறநகர் பகதிகளில் சகாட்ட விடகிறார்கள் . இத மிகவம் மமாசமான நிறலக்கம், மக்கள் சதாறக அதிகரிக்க அதிகரிக்க மிக சபரிய பாதிப்றப ஏற்படத்தம் சற்றபற சழ்நிறலக்க. 25 வரடத்திற்க பிறகம் இந்த மனிசிபல் நறடமறறயில் மாற்றம் சகாண்ட வந்தாலம், ஒர உறதியான நகர மமயர் அறமந்தால் மட்டமம , அத சரி சசய்யபடம் .

2022 க்கள் “Home for all” என்ற மத்திய அரசின் சகாள்றக பாராட்டப்பட மவண்டய ஒன்ற .
அறத நிறறமவற்ற, மாநில அரசம் ஒன்றயிறனந்த சசயலாற்ற மவண்டம் . இததான் சரியான மநரம் , “நகரங்கறள உற்ற கவனிக்க !”. மமலம் அதிகப்படயான வாடறக வீடகள் வழங்கதலம் , மத்திய அரசின் சகாள்றகயில் ஒன்ற . “Green Space, open commons & wetlands” ஆகிய
மன்றறயம் ஓன்றயிறணத்தால், நகரங்கள் சத்தமாகவம், கறலயணர்வடன் மிளிரம்!



1) Aesthetic

Meaning: Relating to the enjoyment or study of beauty.

Example: “The new building has little aesthetic value/appeal”  

2) Precision

Meaning: The quality, condition, or fact of being exact and accurate.

Example: “The deal was planned and executed with military precision”  

Synonyms: Exactness, Accuracy

3) Obelus

Meaning: A mark (– or ÷) used in ancient manuscripts to mark a word or passage as spurious, corrupt or doubtful.

4) Beholder

Meaning: A person who sees or observes someone or something.

Example: “The building and landscape can elicit imaginative responses from the beholder”  

5) Retained

Meaning: Continue to have (something); keep possession of.

Example: “Labour retained the seat”  

Synonyms: Keep, Hang on

Antonyms: Lose, Abolish

6) Integrity

Meaning: The condition of being unified or sound in construction.

Example: “The structural integrity of the novel”  

Synonyms: Soundness, Strength

Antonyms: Fragility

7) Dwell

Meaning: Live in or at a specified place.

Example: “Groups of gypsies still dwell in these caves”

Synonyms: Reside, Live

8) Alliance

Meaning: A union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations.

Example: “A defensive alliance between Australia and New Zealand”  

Synonyms: Association, Union

9) Oaths

Meaning: A solemn promise, often invoking a divine witness, regarding one’s future action or behaviour.

Example: “They took an oath of allegiance to the king”  

Synonyms: Vow, Pledge

10) Cohesively

Meaning: United and working together effectively.  

Example: “A cohesive group”

11) Verve

Meaning: Vigour and spirit or enthusiasm.

Example: “Kollo sings with supreme verve and flexibility”

Synonyms: Enthusiasm, Vigour

12) Vim

Meaning: Energy; enthusiasm.

Example: “In his youth he was full of vim and vigour”  

13) Drew up

Meaning: To prepare something, usually something official, in writing.

Example: “I’ve drawn up a list of candidates that I’d like to interview”  

14) Verdict

Meaning: A decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal case or an inquest.

Example: “The jury returned a verdict of not guilty”  

Synonyms: Judgement, Adjudication

15) Ab initio

Meaning: From the beginning.

Example: “The agreement should be declared void ab initio”  

Synonyms: Initially, Originally  

16) Disregarded

Meaning: Pay no attention to; ignore.

Example: “The body of evidence is too substantial to disregard”

Synonyms: Ignore, Discount

Antonyms: Heed, Pay attention to

17) Poll

Meaning: The process of voting in an election.

Example: “The country went to the polls on March 10”

Synonyms: Vote, Ballot

18) Albeit

Meaning: Though.

Example: “He was making progress, albeit rather slowly”  

19) Hinged

Meaning: Depend entirely on.

Example: “The future of the industry could hinge on the outcome of next month’s election”

Synonyms: Depend, Rest

20) Putative

Meaning: Generally considered or reputed to be.

Example: “The putative father of her children”  

21) Navigate

Meaning: Travel on a desired course after planning a route.

Example: “He taught them how to navigate across the oceans”

22) Diminished

Meaning: Make or become less.

Example: “The new law is expected to diminish the government’s chances”  

Synonyms: Decrease, Decline

Antonyms: Increase, Flare up

23) Ideology

Meaning: A system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.

Example: “The ideology of republicanism”  

Synonyms: Doctrine, Creed

24) Imponderables

Meaning: A factor that is difficult or impossible to estimate or assess.

Example: “There are too many imponderables for an overall prediction”  

25) Imperil

Meaning: Put at risk of being harmed, injured, or destroyed.

Example: “They advised against tax increases for fear of imperilling the recovery”

Synonyms: Endanger, Risk

26) Claim

Meaning: State or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof.

Example: “The Prime Minister claimed that he was concerned about Third World debt”  

Synonyms: Assert, Declare  

27) Abandoned

Meaning: Give up completely (a practice or a course of action).

Example: “He had clearly abandoned all pretence of trying to succeed”

Synonyms: Renounce, Relinquish

Antonyms: Keep, Claim

28) Propriety

Meaning: Conformity to conventionally accepted standards of behaviour or morals.

Example: “He always behaved with the utmost propriety”

Synonyms: Decorum, Respectability

Antonyms: Impropriety, Indecorum

29) Demonstrable

Meaning: Clearly apparent or capable of being logically proved.

Example: “The demonstrable injustices of racism”

Synonyms: Verifiable, Provable

Antonyms: Unverifiable

30) Solely

Meaning: Not involving anyone or anything else; only.

Example: “He is solely responsible for any debts the company may incur”

Synonyms: Only, Simply

31) Ushering

Meaning: Show or guide (someone) somewhere.

Example: “A waiter ushered me to a table”  

Synonyms: Escort, Accompany

32) Unbolted

Meaning: Open (a door or window) by drawing back a bolt.

Example: “He ran down the stairs and unbolted the heavy wooden door”  

33) Constitution

Meaning: A body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.

Example: “Britain lacks a codified constitution”  

Synonyms: Charter, Canon

34) Discretion

Meaning: The quality of behaving or speaking in such a way as to avoid causing offence or revealing confidential information.

Example: “She knew she could rely on his discretion”

Synonyms: Circumspection, Care

Antonyms: Indiscretion, Rashness

36) Arbitrarily

Meaning: On the basis of random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.

Example: “Recurrent infection is arbitrarily defined as three or more infections a year”  

37) Capriciously

Meaning: Given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behaviour.

Example: “A capricious and often brutal administration”

Synonyms: Fickle, Inconstant

Antonyms: Stable, Consistent

38) Staked out

Meaning: To claim ownership of or a particular interest in something.

Example: “All politicians will stake out lowering taxes as their very own idea”  

39) Denied

Meaning: State that one refuses to admit the truth or existence of.

Example: “Both firms deny any responsibility for the tragedy”

Synonyms: Contradict, Repudiate

Antonyms: Confirm

40) Turnaround

Meaning: An abrupt or unexpected change, especially one that results in a more favourable situation.

Example: “It was a remarkable turnaround in his fortunes”

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