Dear Aspirants,

THE HINDU EDITORIAL – May 23, 2019, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like  SBI PO 2019, SBI CLERK 2019, LIC AAO 2019, FCI Prelims 2019 & CWC 2019 and other banking Exams. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.


Eye in the sky: on RISAT-2B

RISAT-2B will enhance India’s monitoring capabilities for civil and military purposes

With the successful pre-dawn launch of RISAT-2B satellite on May 22, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has added another feather to its cap. The satellite will enhance India’s capability in crop monitoring during the monsoon season, forestry mapping for forest fires and deforestation, and flood mapping as part of the national disaster management programme. Given that overcast skies are a constant during the monsoon season and during times of flood, the ability to penetrate the cloud cover is essential. While optical remote sensing that relies on visible light for imaging gets obstructed by clouds, RISAT-2B will not. Much like the RISAT-1 satellite that was launched by ISRO in April 2012, RISAT-2B will also use microwave radiation. Unlike visible light, microwaves have longer wavelength and so will not be susceptible to atmospheric scattering. Microwave radiation can thus easily pass through the cloud cover, haze and dust, and image the ground. Hence, RISAT-2B satellite will be able to image under almost all weather and environmental conditions. Since it does not rely on visible light for imaging, it will be able to image the ground during both day and night. The satellite does not have passive microwave sensors that detect the radiation naturally emitted by the atmosphere or reflected by objects on the ground. Instead, RISAT-2B will be transmitting hundreds of microwave pulses each second towards the ground and receiving the signals reflected by the objects using radar. The moisture and texture of the object will determine the strength of the microwave signal that gets reflected. While the strength of the reflected signal will help determine different targets, the time between the transmitted and reflected signals will help determine the distance to the object.

The RISAT-2B satellite uses X-band synthetic aperture radar for the first time; the synthetic aperture radar was developed indigenously. Unlike the C-band that was used by RISAT-1, the shorter wavelength of the X-band allows for higher resolution imagery for target identification and discrimination. Since it has high resolution, the satellite will be able to detect objects with dimensions of as little as a metre. This capacity to study small objects and also movement could be useful for surveillance. As K. Sivan, ISRO Chairman and Secretary, Department of Space, had said last month, the satellite could be used for civil and strategic purposes. RISAT-2B will have an inclined orbit of 37 degrees, which will allow more frequent observations over the Indian subcontinent. With ISRO planning to launch four more such radar imaging satellites in a year, its ability to monitor crops and floods as well as engage in military surveillance will be greatly enhanced.


  1. pre-dawn

Meaning: relating to or taking place before dawn.

Tamil Meaning: விடியலுக்கு – முன்

Example Sentence: “in a predawn raid, troops stormed the university campus”

  1. enhance

Meaning: intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of.

Tamil Meaning: அதிகரிக்க / அதிகப்படுத்து

Synonyms: Increase, add to, intensify, magnify

Antonyms: diminish, mar

Example Sentence: “his refusal does nothing to enhance his reputation”

  1. capability

Meaning: the power or ability to do something.

Tamil Meaning: திறன் / செயல் வல்லமை

Synonyms: Ability, capacity, power, potential, potentiality

Antonyms:Iinability, incompetence

Example Sentence: “he had an intuitive capability of bringing the best out in people”

  1. deforestation

Meaning: the action of clearing a wide area of trees.

Tamil Meaning: காடழிப்பு / காடழித்தல்

Synonyms: desertification , erosion , logging

Antonyms: Afforestation

Example Sentence: “a key aim is to try to halt widespread deforestation in the Amazon”

  1. disaster

Meaning: a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.

Tamil Meaning: பேரழிவு / பேரிடர் / விபத்து

Synonyms: Catastrophe, calamity, cataclysm, tragedy, act of God

Antonyms: Blessing

Example Sentence: “159 people died in the disaster”

  1. overcast

Meaning: (of the sky or weather) marked by a covering of grey cloud; dull.

Tamil Meaning: மேகம் / இருண்ட

Synonyms: Cloudy, clouded, clouded over, overclouded, sunless

Antonyms: bright, clear

Example Sentence: “a chilly, overcast day”

  1. penetrate

Meaning: go into or through (something), especially with force or effort.

Tamil Meaning: ஊடுருவி / உட்செலுத்து / உட்பகு

Synonyms: Pierce, puncture, make a hole in, perforate

Antonyms: Surrender, Retreat

Example Sentence: “the shrapnel had penetrated his head”

  1. obstructed

Meaning: block (an opening, path, road, etc.); be or get in the way of.

Tamil Meaning: தடை / தடை உண்டாக்கு

Synonyms: block, block up, clog, clog up, get/stand in the way of

Antonyms: clear

Example Sentence: “she was obstructing the entrance”

  1. scattering

Meaning: an act of scattering something.

Tamil Meaning: சிதறல் / அங்கும் இங்கும் சிதறுகிற

Synonyms: Handful, few, one or two, not many, a small number

Example Sentence: “the colossal wastage involved in a random scattering”

  1. emitted

Meaning: produce and discharge (something, especially gas or radiation).

Tamil Meaning: உமிழப்படும்

Synonyms: discharge, release, give out/off, pour out, send forth

Antonyms: absorb

Example Sentence: “even the best cars emit carbon dioxide”

  1. transmitting

Meaning: cause (something) to pass on from one person or place to another.

Tamil Meaning: கடத்தும் / மின்கடத்து / கொடுத்தனுப்ப

Synonyms: Transfer, pass on, hand on, communicate, convey

Antonyms: receive

Example Sentence: “knowledge is transmitted from teacher to pupil”

  1. aperture

Meaning: an opening, hole, or gap / a space through which light passes in an optical or photographic instrument, especially the variable opening by which light enters a camera.

Tamil Meaning: துளை / இடைவெளியில் தனித்தெடுத்த நிறம் / துவாரம்

Synonyms: opening, hole, gap, space, slit, slot, vent, passage

Antonyms: Agreement, Cut, Break

Example Sentence: “the bell ropes passed through apertures in the ceiling”

  1. indigenously

Meaning: originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native.

Tamil Meaning: உள்நாட்டிலேயே

Synonyms: Native, aboriginal, local;

Antonyms: Expatriate, migrant, adventitious

Example Sentence: “the indigenous peoples of Siberia”

  1. discrimination

Meaning: the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.

Tamil Meaning: பாகுபாடு / வேறுபடுத்துதல் / வேறுபாடு காணல்

Synonyms: prejudice, bias, bigotry, intolerance, narrow-mindedness

Antonyms: Impartiality

Example Sentence: “victims of racial discrimination”

  1. detect

Meaning: discover or identify the presence or existence of.

Tamil Meaning: கண்டறிய / கண்டுபிடி / துப்பறி

Synonyms: notice, become aware of, perceive, note, discern

Antonyms: Conceal, Ignore

Example Sentence: “cancer may soon be detected in its earliest stages”

  1. inclined

Meaning: leaning or turning away from the vertical or horizontal; sloping.

Tamil Meaning: பாராட்டுவதில்லை / சாய்ந்த

Synonyms: Disposed, minded, of a mind, willing

Antonyms: Disinclined

Example Sentence: “an inclined ramp”

  1. observations

Meaning: the action or process of closely observing or monitoring something or someone.

Tamil Meaning: கவனிப்பு / கூர்ந்த பார்த்தல்

Synonyms: watching, monitoring, scrutiny, examination, inspection

Antonyms: Disbelief, Neglect, Unobservance

Example Sentence: “she was brought into hospital for observation”

  1. engage

Meaning: occupy or attract (someone’s interest or attention).

Tamil Meaning: ஈடுபட / வேலையில் ஏற்றுக்கொள்

Synonyms: capture, catch, arrest, grab, seize, draw

Antonyms: Lose

Example Sentence: “he ploughed on, trying to outline his plans and engage Sutton’s attention”

  1. surveillance

Meaning: close observation, especially of a suspected spy or criminal.

Tamil Meaning: கண்காணிப்பு / கடுமையான மேற்பார்வை / கவனக்கண்காணிப்ப

Synonyms: observation, scrutiny, watch, view, inspection

Antonyms: Neglect, Indifference

Example Sentence: “he found himself put under surveillance by British military intelligence”

  1. enhanced

Meaning: intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of.

Tamil Meaning: அதிகரிக்க / அதிகப்படுத்து

Synonyms: Increase, add to, intensify, magnify, amplify, inflate, strengthen

Antonyms: diminish, mar

Example Sentence: “his refusal does nothing to enhance his reputation”