THE HINDU EDITORIAL : DECEMBER 16, 2017

 

a) Stalemate at WTO: On U.S. obstructionism

The 11th biennial ministerial conference of the World Trade Organisation ended in a stalemate, with countries divided along industrial and developing lines. India is seeing the outcome as a partial success; none of its “offensive” interests were achieved, but its “defensive” interests remain protected. While India’s push to ensure a consensus around a ‘permanent solution’ to the public stockpiling of food for food security purposes was thwarted by the U.S., the “peace clause”, under which countries would not lodge complaints against developing country subsidies to meet their food security needs, remained in place. The failure of industrial countries to fast-track e-commerce talks, and commitments that reductions in fishing subsidies would not be discussed at least until the next ministerial in 2019, are being seen by India as points in its favour. The rift between advanced economies and the rest was apparent. Industrial countries have been keen on moving the agenda forward from development, which was the stated focus of the Doha Round that began in 2001. Developing countries want Doha Round commitments to be fulfilled before topics of interest to the West — such as e-commerce and market access for small enterprises — are discussed. The U.S. has said it wants to clarify its understanding of “development”, and contended that members were using it to gain exemptions from rules, and that some of the richest countries (presumably in absolute and not per capita GDP terms) were claiming this status. It also issued a joint statement with the European Union and Japan, aimed primarily at China, on trade-distorting practices such as over-capacity and mandatory technology transfer policies, while India and China submitted a proposal to end the trade-distorting farm subsidies of Western nations. President Donald Trump’s disdain for multilateral forums and agreements, which he sees as opportunities for countries to take advantage of America, was reflected in Buenos Aires. U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer had left before the conference concluded, leaving a leadership vacuum that his EU counterpart, Cecilia Malmström, unsuccessfully tried to fill. In fact, since Mr. Trump assumed office, the administration has blocked the reappointment of judges to the appellate body of the WTO, despite the U.S. being a frequent user of the dispute resolution mechanism. India rightly argued that while its GDP may be growing, the country has hundreds of millions living in poverty and without food security. While India can, and must, develop a multi-pronged approach to end hunger, it is correct to seek clarifications that its sovereign right to provide subsidies for food security is not compromised by the WTO. What has become clear in Buenos Aires is that India cannot rely on the Trump administration for support on crucial trade issues at multilateral forums.

b) A closer look at the lines

Last week, ahead of the 20th round of the now moribund talks between the Special Representatives of India and China entrusted with finding an early settlement of the border question, the Chinese Foreign Minister, Wang Yi, after meeting External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and the National Security Adviser, Ajit Doval, set out parameters that he implied needed to be bilaterally addressed with urgency. In sum, the remarks constitute quite a lecture. They lay the initiative for corrective measures comprehensively at New Delhi’s door and make it difficult to gloss over their implications. Whereas, the statements made by New Delhi appear, in contrast, to be conciliatory and more hopeful. The set of remarks, therefore, broadly underpin the direction of ties with China in the near term. A course correction is being sought, months after the Doklam crisis has been perceived to have been set at rest.

The import

While it is not clear if it is a negotiating tactic, here is the listing, in no particular order of priority, so the import of the Wang Yi stipulations is not lost in translation: that India-China relations were at a crucial moment at present; he used the phrase “critical period” after he met Ms. Swaraj. That both countries needed to make the “correct choice regarding the future direction of bilateral relations”. That the results of the efforts made for “overall development momentum were unsatisfactory”. The most important thing to do was (emphasis added) “genuine cultivation of mutual trust”. So long as mutual trust continued to be absent, “some individual issues will keep fermenting and spilling over, thus eroding the overall situation of bilateral relations”. That the “Dong Lang incident caused by the Indian border troops’ illegal crossing of the China-India boundary into the Chinese territory was a severe test for bilateral relations… lessons should be learned to prevent similar incidents from happening again”. That the two countries “should properly control and handle problems left over from history and some specific issues in bilateral relations by putting them in the right place of China-India relations, without politicizing and complicating them to hamper the overall development of China-India relations”. Mr. Wang also set out some tasks that needed to be undertaken: both sides should enhance strategic communications at all levels, restore established dialogue mechanisms (emphasis added), deepen practical co-operation in various fields “and meanwhile, well manage existing differences and well safeguard peace and tranquility in border areas”. He also specifically alluded to the benefits that await India were it to come aboard the Belt and Road Initiative, which New Delhi has shown some reluctance towards. Thus some of the Chinese goals and the problems have been clearly set out in public. This is the clearest confirmation yet that the “dialogue mechanism” —where the two Special Representatives (SR) meet, and set up with so much fanfare in 2003 — may have over the last decade-and-a-half or so, been more or less transformed into an exercise in general fatuity. Just like the Joint Working Group that looked at clarifying the border areas before the SRs came along. In the meanwhile, four Special Representatives have changed — Brajesh Mishra, J.N. Dixit, M.K. Narayanan, as well as Shivshankar Menon. Will Ajit Doval, or the one who follows him eventually, or the one afterwards, be able to make a difference?

A slide

It is also significant that Mr. Wang’s candid remarks should come days after the tenth round of the Working Mechanism for Consultation and Co-ordination on India China Border Affairs, (WMCC) which concluded with a positive spin having been imparted to them as having been “constructive and forward looking”, but without firm dates for the next meeting. What a slide it has been. The SR dialogue was set up after lengthy diplomatic negotiations had yielded the “Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the Boundary Question”. The hard-fought principles set out that the eventually delineated boundary would “be along well-defined and easily identifiable natural geographical features” and that the due interest of the settled populations in the border areas would be taken care of. It was expected that the exploration for the framework for the boundary settlement would commence thereafter.

Clarity on the border

In the meanwhile, some of the expectations had rewritten themselves. The Joint Working Group — that had been clarifying the border areas with a view to leading up to exchange of maps on a mutually agreed scale on where the Line of Actual Control (LAC) lay in each others’ perception — had run itself into the ground. This was after sample maps were exchanged in the Middle Sector without having been able to progress to the Western and Eastern Sectors. There was a time when as many as four lines ran across the border areas: one where we perceived the LAC to be, one where the Chinese perceived the LAC to be, one where we perceived the Chinese perceived the line to be and one where the Chinese perceived where we thought our line lay. The last two lines were somewhat guess-worked from the military graffiti, tell-tale traces that our armies leave behind when they foray into the border areas asserting perceptional rights through patrols, the same way as animals mark territory. It is not even clear whether we have spoken of each other’s perception of the LAC for the last decade. This after China had till the middle of the 1980s seemed open to a process that would let India keep the areas in the East while they held on to those in the West. The fond hope was of an “LAC plus” solution. That changed as well. As did the pious intention to earnestly look for an early solution. Utterances of visiting Chinese premiers introduced new nuances into the diplomatic liturgy, emphasising the complexity of the issue, underlining the difficulty of its resolution, and, thereby, leaving it to future generations to grapple with. Instead of enlarging commonalities, what is being expanded instead are the divergences: whether it is China’s opposition to India’s entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group, or its steadfast support to Pakistan’s mollycoddling of terrorist groups that are inimical to India, or its pointed message to encourage Bhutan to settle its boundary dispute with China in a way that would make the Indian Army’s presence in Doklam eventually redundant. Just look at the Chinese penetration of the area we consider to be our backyard: whether it is Sri Lanka, Nepal, and now the Maldives. Can Bhutan be far behind? To this day, even though a military hotline between the two army headquarters had been agreed upon years ago, it has not materialised. This is something that would be logical, even imperative, given that both countries have improved their border infrastructure in terms of roads and accessibility in such a way that increases the possibilities of troops chancing upon each other. Therefore, transgressions will increase in terms of frequency, duration, depth, and intensity. The aim should be to evolve a stronger mechanism to manage the border areas more effectively to ensure equilibrium. This must include a more robust code of military conduct, even though neither side has sought to alter border reality through use of force. It is time New Delhi put more effort into strengthening India’s presence in those areas where we are present, where we consider to be them as our border, and live with it rather than to wait for Beijing to alter reality again. It is easier to make provisions to better live with it than to squander energies resolving it. If we don’t let the boundary question detain us, we will be in a better position to enlarge the areas where we can more fruitfully, in the Asian Century, engage the Chinese in line with the bilateral intentions that envisaged the simultaneous rise of both China and India.


WORDS/VOCABULARY

1) Consensus

Meaning: A general agreement.

Example: “there is a growing consensus that the current regime has failed”

Synonyms: Agreement, Concord

Antonyms: Disagreement

2) Stockpiling

Meaning: Accumulate a large stock of (goods or materials).

Example: “he claimed that the weapons were being stockpiled”

Synonyms: Amass, Accumulate

3) Thwarted

Meaning: Oppose (a plan, attempt, or ambition) successfully.

Example: “the government had been able to thwart all attempts by opposition leaders to form new parties”

Synonyms: Foil, Frustrate

Antonyms: Assist, Facilitate

4) Fishing

Meaning: Search by groping or feeling for something concealed.

Example: “he fished for his registration certificate and held it up to the policeman’s torch”

Synonyms: Search, Delve

5) Rift

Meaning: A serious break in friendly relations.

Example: “the rift between the two branches of the legal profession”

Synonyms: Breach, Division

6) Apparent

Meaning: Clearly visible or understood; obvious.

Example: “for no apparent reason she laughed”

Synonyms: Seeming, Obvious

Antonyms: Unclear, Obscure

7) Trade-distorting

Meaning: Used to describe a tax or action that changes the normal characteristics of trade.

Example: Some experts believe that trade-distorting agricultural subsidies are partly responsible for increases in global food prices.

8) Disdain

Meaning: Refuse to do (something) from feelings of pride or superiority.

Example: “she remained standing, pointedly disdaining his invitation to sit down”

Synonyms: Spurn, Reject

Antonyms: Accept

9) Pronged

Meaning: Having the stated number of prongs.

Example: To tackle inflation the government have evolved a three-pronged strategy (= a plan that involves three ways of dealing with the problem).

Synonyms: Tools

10) Moribund

Meaning: (of a thing) in terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigour.

Example: “the moribund commercial property market”

Synonyms: Dying, Stagnant

Antonyms: Flourishing

11) Gloss over (something)

Meaning: To avoid considering something, such as an embarrassing mistake, to make it seem not important, and to quickly continue talking about something else.

Example: She glossed over the company’s declining profits.

Synonyms: Beat, Evasive

12) Conciliatory

Meaning: Intended or likely to placate or pacify.

Example: “a conciliatory approach”

Synonyms: Placatory, Peacemaking

Antonyms: Antagonistic

13) Underpin

Meaning: Support, justify, or form the basis for.

Example: “the theme of honour underpinning the two books”

Synonyms: Support, Strength

14) Perceived

Meaning: Interpret or regard (someone or something) in a particular way; become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand.

Example: “if Guy does not perceive himself as disabled, nobody else should”

Synonyms: View, Regard

15) Stipulations

Meaning: A condition or requirement that is specified or demanded as part of an agreement.

Example: “they donated their collection of prints with the stipulation that they never be publicly exhibited”

Synonyms: Condition, Precondition

16) Fermenting

Meaning: Incite or stir up (trouble or disorder).

Example: “the politicians and warlords who are fermenting this chaos”

Synonyms: Cause, Instigate

17) Spilling over

Meaning: If an activity or situation spills over, it begins to affect another situation or group of people, especially in an unpleasant or unwanted way; to continue for a longer time than expected.

Example: The conflict threatens to spill over into neighbouring regions.

Synonyms: Affecting, Influencing

18) Hamper

Meaning: Hinder or impede the movement or progress of.

Example: “their work is hampered by lack of funds”

Synonyms: Hinder, Obstruct

Antonyms: Help

19) Enhance

Meaning: Intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of.

Example: “his refusal does nothing to enhance his reputation”

Synonyms: Increase, Intensify

Antonyms: Diminish, Mar

20) Tranquility

Meaning: The quality or state of being tranquil; calm.

Example: “passing cars are the only noise that disturbs the tranquillity of rural life”

Synonyms: Peace, Repose

Antonyms: Commotion

21) Reluctance

Meaning: Unwillingness or disinclination to do something.

Example: “she sensed his reluctance to continue”

Synonyms: Unwillingness, Disinclination

Antonyms: Willingness, Eagerness

22) Fanfare

Meaning: Media attention or elaborate ceremony.

Example: “the studio released this film with great fanfare but no commercial success”

Synonyms: Commotion, Display

23) Spin

Meaning: The presentation of information in a particular way; a slant, especially a favourable one.

Example: “he tried to put a positive spin on the president’s campaign”

Synonyms: Slant, Twist

24) Imparted

Meaning: Make (information) known.

Example: “the teachers imparted a great deal of knowledge to their pupils”

Synonyms: Communicate, Promulgate

Antonyms: Keep to oneself

25) Hard-fought

Meaning: Achieved after a lot of difficulty or fighting

Example: A hard-fought victory.

Synonyms: Success, Ambitious

26) Delineated

Meaning: Describe or portray (something) precisely.

Example: “the law should delineate and prohibit behaviour which is socially abhorrent”

Synonyms: Describe, Outline

27) Exploration

Meaning: Thorough examination of a subject.

Example: “some changes in the care-giving situation may need exploration”

Synonyms: Enquiry, Scrutiny

28) Perception

Meaning: Intuitive understanding and insight.

Example: “‘He wouldn’t have accepted,’ said my mother with unusual perception”

Synonyms: Insight, Sharpness

29) Guess-worked

Meaning: The process of making a guess when you do not know all the facts.

Example: The projected sales figures are pure guesswork on our part.

Synonyms: Assumption, Imagination

30) Graffiti

Meaning: Words or drawings, especially humorous, rude, or political, on walls, doors, etc. in public places.

Example: The subway walls are covered with graffiti.

31) Tell-tale

Meaning: Revealing, indicating, or betraying something.

Example: “the telltale bulge of a concealed weapon”

Synonyms: Revealing, Revelatory

32) Asserting

Meaning: State a fact or belief confidently and forcefully.

Example: “the company asserts that the cuts will not affect development”

Synonyms: Declare, Maintain

33) Utterances

Meaning: The action of saying or expressing something aloud.

Example: “the simple utterance of a few platitudes”

Synonyms: Saying, Expression

34) Liturgy

Meaning: A form or formulary according to which public religious worship, especially Christian worship, is conducted.

Example: “the Church of England liturgy”

Synonyms: Ritual, Worship

35) Steadfast

Meaning: Resolutely or dutifully firm and unwavering.

Example: “steadfast loyalty”

Synonyms: Loyal, Faithful

Antonyms: Disloyal, Irresolute

36) Mollycoddling

Meaning: Treat (someone) in an indulgent or overprotective way.

Example: “I found school very difficult, and realized I’d been mollycoddled at home”

Synonyms: Pamper, Coddle

37) Transgressions

Meaning: An act that goes against a law, rule, or code of conduct; an offence.

Example: “I’ll be keeping an eye out for further transgressions”

Synonyms: Offence, Crime

Antonyms: Obedience

38) Squander

Meaning: Waste (something, especially money or time) in a reckless and foolish manner.

Example: “£100m of taxpayers’ money has been squandered on administering the tax”

Synonyms: Waste, Misspend

Antonyms: Manage, Save

39) Fruitfully

Meaning: Producing good results.

Example: It was a most fruitful discussion, with both sides agreeing to adopt a common policy.

Synonyms: Productive, Useful

Antonyms: Fruitless, Futile

40) Envisaged

Meaning: Contemplate or conceive of as a possibility or a desirable future event.

Example: “the Rome Treaty envisaged free movement across frontiers”

Synonyms: Foresee, Predict


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