a) A road map for renewal

The Economic Survey, a statutory document tabled in Parliament, is meant to be a scorecard of the economy for the current fiscal year. But over the years, it has morphed into a sourcebook for data and policy analysis. Indeed, economists and even academicians look forward to its scholarly content, even though it may have a partisan outlook.

Sober realities

This year’s Survey too does not disappoint in being a veritable feast and also presenting fairly sober realities. Under the leadership of Chief Economic Adviser (CEA) Arvind Subramanian, one quirk of the Survey is its thematic catchphrases. For instance, a few years ago, the CEA, in the Survey’s preamble, said that the Indian political economy was not capable of big bang reforms. Instead, reforms would be persistent, creative and incremental. It’s a different matter that in November 2016, India got the world’s biggest bang announcement in the form of demonetisation. Last year the Survey introduced the catchphrase JAM (the Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile trinity) indicating their potent combination of enabling direct benefit transfers and using technology to deliver subsidies as well as trim leakages. In its first chapter, the latest Survey highlights 10 new facts about the Indian economy. Unfortunately some are not so new, and some are inane. For example, the fact that adverse weather affects agricultural yields and that parents in India have a preference for male children are hardly new “facts”. But others are significant, such as the finding that demonetisation and more formalisation of the economy have led to a huge jump in the number of taxpayers, for both direct and indirect taxes. Or that the formal part of the non-agricultural payroll is much bigger than believed. Unfortunately, this new “fact” is not substantiated with latest data; the Survey presents data from 2012. Surely the government is not stuck in a time warp, is it? Another interesting fact is that India’s export sector is more diversified in comparison to other peer countries; that is, the top 1% of exporting firms account for a much smaller share of total exports, compared to East Asian countries. It is heartening to note the important role of small and medium enterprises in industrial employment and exports. On the other hand, this could be due to the inability of Indian firms to achieve global scale. Are the scale aspirations being thwarted by restrictive labour laws?

A populist hint

One of the most sobering facts in the Survey has been on the rural and agricultural sector. Farm incomes have remained stagnant for the past four years, hit by a drop in crop prices, output glut, and possibly demonetisation. So what is the prospect of doubling farm incomes in the next few years? Given that the Budget will be the last one before the 2019 general election (a fact reiterated by the Survey), it is almost a foregone conclusion that there will be great emphasis on the farm sector. This also means a tilt towards populism. How then will the fiscal limits be obeyed? Here the Survey hints that some slippage from pre-announced fiscal deficit targets are to be expected in this pre-election Budget. The bond markets hate fiscal slippage and already there is sell-off of bonds. This will lead to a rise in interest rates. The biggest loser from a higher interest rate is the biggest borrower in the system, the Government of India. Even an increase of 0.5-0.6% rate over one year is an increase in the interest burden of more than ₹40,000 crore, equivalent to the full budget of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Hence the government will have to think very carefully on how to avoid slippage and keep bond markets happy. The disinvestment target was overachieved this year which is quite impressive and could be continued next year, given the euphoria in the stock markets. The Survey does point out that India’s stock markets have a different dynamic when compared to global markets. Stock markets all over the world are at record highs and there is concern about a bubble formation. In fact, a new phrase in the international lexicon is melt-up, which is the opposite of melt-down. So whether it’s oil prices or commodity prices, and now stock markets, it’s all going up and this may be the big surge before a crash, big or small. But in India, according to the Survey, stock market valuations may not be in bubble territory. That is why the disinvestment target for next year may be higher. Also, the widening of the tax net can be positive for revenues, thus cutting the deficit.

Global factors

The Survey mentions key macroeconomic headwinds from abroad. First, oil prices are going up. This would mean that the triple advantage that the government enjoyed since late-2014 for almost two years of a lower import bill, lower oil subsidy burden and lower inflation is going to go away. Every $10 increase in oil prices can reduce GDP growth by 0.2-0.3%. And oil prices have gone up by almost 60% in the last six months. The second headwind comes from the tightening stance of the world’s most influential central bank, the U.S. Fed. As rates are being tightened in the U.S., it is likely to lead to a reversal of dollar flows, which can impact India’s domestic liquidity situation, the stock market, and perhaps the exchange rate. In addition, there are domestic challenges. The Budget priorities are clearly in these five areas: job creation; revival of private investment spending; revival of exports; focus on rural and agricultural economy; and bringing the banking sector back to a healthier condition. To this one, in the medium to longer term, add worries about increasing inequality. On the eve of the recent World Economic Forum at Davos, Oxfam released a report which said that 1% of India owns 73% of its wealth. This was reportedly mentioned by the Prime Minister in his meeting with Indian corporate leaders at Davos. One cause of inequality is the strain of indirect taxes, which tend to be regressive because they affect the poor disproportionately. The goods and services tax is an indirect tax. Excise duties on petrol and diesel are indirect taxes. In the last three years, the share of indirect taxes in total taxation has gone up steadily, which needs to be reversed. So there is an expectation that there will be action on the direct tax front to correct this trend.

Tax disputes

Finally, the Survey points out that India’s rank in ease of doing business has jumped significantly, but an area which remains a cause for concern is the settlement of disputes or litigation. A telling statistic is the large amount stuck in tax litigation. By definition, one party to the litigation is the tax department, and quite often the other party is also a government company. The total amount estimated to be locked up in tax disputes is more than ₹8.2 lakh crore. And this happens despite the lower authorities or tribunals ruling in favour of the tax-payer; it is automatically escalated to the higher level till it goes to the courts. There is an incentive problem because tax officers are not incentivised to settle claims for fear of being accused of collusion or corruption. The Economic Survey points out that such a high rate of pendency and the huge amounts stuck in litigation are hurting India’s ease of doing business. Another telling statistic is the pendency in settling or granting of patents. These are “property rights” arising out of innovations. More than two lakh applications are pending, and isn’t this a bad sign for innovators? The Survey is overall an excellent document which doesn’t shy away from painting a realistic picture whether it is about jobs, investments, growth outlook or burdensome litigation. Now all eyes are focussed on the Union Budget. Will it address concerns raised in the Survey or will it go its own way?

b) A wider net: on the expanding tax base

The demonetisation of high-value currency notes and the advent of the goods and services tax regime have triggered a surge in the number of those filing taxes in the country. The Economic Survey argues that the large gains on the indirect and direct tax fronts indicate that the primary intentions behind the two big-bang economic strides — of formalising the economy and bringing more income into the tax net — have been met to some extent. From about 59 million individuals who filed income tax returns or whose tax was deducted at source in 2015-16, the number of tax-filers rose by 10.1 million since the note ban. Stripped of statistical adjustments to avoid a bias in findings, the Survey assesses that roughly 1.8 million, or 3% of the existing compliers, started paying up. Many of them are reporting incomes close to the ₹2.5-lakh threshold for personal income tax, so this may not swell the exchequer much. But it holds potential for growth as the new taxpayers progress in their vocations. Personal income tax collections are expected to rise to a historic high of 2.3% of GDP in 2017-18, compared to 2% between 2013-14 and 2015-16. This may seem glacial progress but could be considered a tipping point in a country where just 4% of adults pay personal income tax, though the government reckons that number should be 23%. The Survey finds a 50% increase in unique indirect taxpayers in the first six months of GST, with around 10 million registered taxpayers now compared to an estimated 6.5 million pre-GST. The GST regime, despite the initial chinks, could end up boosting India’s macro-economic stability by breaking what the Survey terms ‘inertia’ of the tax-GDP ratio. This ratio for the Centre has remained at the same level since the 1980s, though the economy grew at an annual average of about 6.5%. The Survey has noted that both of India’s underlying macro weaknesses — the fiscal and current account deficits — tend to get exacerbated when oil prices move up. A wider tax base could at least help tackle the former. Fixing exporters’ GST woes and continuing to ease the transition pains under its new features, such as e-way bills to deter evasion, would be critical to attain the 7%-7.5% growth projected for the coming year. At the same time, the government needs a road map to expand the direct tax pie by pruning blanket exemptions for vocations such as farming and using a more proactive Big Data-driven approach to target evaders. The government must reward this tax base expansion by offering the ‘compliant’ some relief in the Budget, even if it means slashing high duties on petroleum products. After all, high indirect taxes pinch the poorest the most.


1) Statutory

Meaning: Statutory declarations are commonly used to allow a person to declare something to be true for the purposes of satisfying some legal requirement or regulation when no other evidence is available.

2) Morphed

Meaning: Undergo or cause to undergo a gradual process of transformation.

Example: “The cute moppet has morphed into the moody moll of the indie world”

3) Partisan

Meaning: A strong supporter of a party, cause, or person.

Example: “Partisans of the exiled Stuarts”

Synonyms: Supporter, Follower

4) Veritable

Meaning: Used for emphasis, often to qualify a metaphor.

Example: “The early 1970s witnessed a veritable price explosion”

5) Feast

Meaning: A collection of something to be enjoyed:

Example: “The team contains a veritable feast of international talent”

6) Sober

Meaning: Serious, sensible, and solemn.

Example: “A sober view of life”

Synonyms: Serious, Sensible

Antonyms: Light-hearted, Frivolous

7) Quirk

Meaning: A peculiar aspect of a person’s character or behaviour.

Example: “They accepted her attitude as one of her little quirks”

Synonyms: Idiosyncrasy, Peculiarity

8) Catchphrases

Meaning: A well-known sentence or phrase, especially one that is associated with a particular famous person.

Example: “The movie gave the world the catchphrase ‘I’m gonna make him an offer he can’t refuse’”

Synonyms: Saying, Quotation

9) Preamble

Meaning: A preliminary or preparatory statement; an introduction.

Example: “He could tell that what she said was by way of a preamble”

10) Potent

Meaning: Having great power, influence, or effect.

Example: “Thrones were potent symbols of authority”

Synonyms: Powerful, Strong

Antonyms: Weak, Impotent

11) Trim

Meaning: To reduce the amount or size of something:

Example: “They’re trying to trim their costs, so staff who leave are not being replaced”

12) Inane

Meaning: Lacking sense or meaning; silly.

Example: “Don’t badger people with inane questions”

Synonyms: Silly, Foolish

Antonyms: Intelligent, Sensible

13) Aspirations

Meaning: A hope or ambition of achieving something.

Example: “The needs and aspirations of the people”

Synonyms: Desire, Hope

14) Thwarted

Meaning: Oppose (a plan, attempt, or ambition) successfully.

Example: “The government had been able to thwart all attempts by opposition leaders to form new parties”

Synonyms: Foil, Frustrate

Antonyms: Assist, Facilitate

15) Stagnant

Meaning: Showing no activity; dull and sluggish.

Example: “A stagnant economy”

Synonyms: Inactive, Sluggish

Antonyms: Active, Vibrant

16) Reiterated

Meaning: Say something again or a number of times, typically for emphasis or clarity.

Example: “She reiterated that the government would remain steadfast in its support”

Synonyms: Repeat, Restate

17) Foregone

Meaning: Past.

Example: “poets dream of lives foregone in worlds fantastical”

Synonyms: Past, Former

18) Slippage

Meaning: The action or process of slipping or subsiding.

Example: “£16 million has been spent on cracks and slippage”

19) Sell-off

Meaning: A sale of shares, bonds, or commodities, especially one that causes a fall in price.

Example: “The stock market was shaken earlier this week by sell-offs in defence issues”

20) Euphoria

Meaning: A feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness.

Example: “In his euphoria, he had become convinced he could defeat them”

Synonyms: Elation, Happiness

Antonyms: Misery, Depression

21) Bubble

Meaning: Used to refer to a good or fortunate situation that is isolated from reality or unlikely to last.

Example: “We both lived in a bubble, the kind provided by occupying a privileged pied-à-terre in Greenwich Village”

Synonyms: Illusion, Delusion

22) Lexicon

Meaning: The vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge.

Example: “The size of the English lexicon”

23) Headwind

Meaning: A wind blowing in the opposite direction to the one you are moving in:

Example: “The runners had to battle against a stiff/strong headwind”

24) Stance

Meaning: The attitude of a person or organization towards something; a standpoint.

Example: “The party is changing its stance on Europe”

Synonyms: Attitude, Stand

25) Revival

Meaning: An improvement in the condition, strength, or fortunes of someone or something.

Example: “A revival in the fortunes of the party”

Synonyms: Improvement, Rallying

Antonyms: Downturn

26) Eve

Meaning: The period or day before an important event:

Example: “Mrs Clayton was speaking to Arab journalists in Paris on the eve of her visit to Egypt”

27) Litigation

Meaning: The process of taking legal action.

Example:”The company wishes to avoid litigation”

Synonyms: Legal action, Lawsuit

28) Tribunals

Meaning: A body established to settle certain types of dispute.

Example: “An industrial tribunal ruled that he was unfairly dismissed”

Synonyms: Board, Panel

29) Escalated

Meaning: Increase rapidly.

Example: “The price of tickets escalated”

Synonyms: Increase rapidly, Soar

Antonyms: Plunge

30) Pendency

Meaning: The state of being pending.

Example: “The pendency of the litigation”

31) Stripped

Meaning: Deprive someone of (rank, power, or property).

Example: “The lieutenant was stripped of his rank”

Synonyms: Take away from, Dispossess

32) Bias

Meaning: Inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair.

Example: “There was evidence of bias against black applicants”

Synonyms: Prejudice, Partiality

Antonyms: Objectivity, Fairness, Impartiality

33) Tipping point

Meaning: The point at which a series of small changes or incidents becomes significant enough to cause a larger, more important change.

34) Reckons

Meaning: To think or believe.

Example: “I reckon it’s going to rain”

35) Chinks

Meaning: A narrow opening, typically one that admits light.

Example: “A chink in the curtains”

Synonyms: Opening, Gap

36) Exacerbated

Meaning: Make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.

Example: “The exorbitant cost of land in urban areas only exacerbated the problem”

Synonyms: Aggravate, Make worse

Antonyms: Calm, Reduce

37) Tackle

Meaning: Make determined efforts to deal with (a problem or difficult task).

Example: “Police have launched an initiative to tackle rising crime”

38) Deter

Meaning: Prevent the occurrence of.

Example: “Strategists think not only about how to deter war, but about how war might occur”

Synonyms: Prevent, Stop

39) Evasion

Meaning: The action of evading something.

Example: “Their adroit evasion of almost all questions”

Synonyms: Avoidance, Dodging

Antonyms: Confrontation

40) Pruning

Meaning: The activity of reducing the number or amount of something.

Example: “A pruning of the product range and the 30 factories they currently own could produce massive savings”

You can check the other important topics from THE HINDU EDITORIAL from the links given below. Also this will be very useful for your exam preparations and also to increase your vocabulary list. Learning English is fun, so learn from the previous editions now.


The List of Other THE HINDU EDITORIAL posts available in BANKERSDAILY: