THE HINDU EDITORIAL : DECEMBER 1, 2018
THE HINDU EDITORIAL : DECEMBER 1, 2018
Dear Banking Aspirants,
THE HINDU EDITORIAL – December 1, 2018, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like IBPS Clerk 2018, Canara Bank PO – PGDBF 2018 and IBPS SO 2018. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.
A) The death debate: on Justice Joseph’s views on capital punishment
Justice Joseph’s views on abolishing capital punishment require serious consideration
In questioning the merits of retaining the death penalty, Justice Kurian Joseph has re-ignited a debate that is important and requires serious thought. What he said cannot be ignored, though the law laid down in Bachan Singh (1980), upholding the validity of the death penalty and laying down guidelines for awarding death in ‘the rarest of rare’ cases’, still holds the field. Even the other two judges on the Bench have disagreed with Justice Joseph’s view that the time has come to review the death penalty, its purpose and practice. But it is impossible to ignore the ethical and practical dimensions of the debate in a world that is increasingly questioning the wisdom of capital punishment. Justice Joseph has underscored the arbitrary manner in which it is awarded by different judges and the way public discourse influences such decisions. Concerns over judge-centric variations have been raised in the past. The Supreme Court itself spoke of the “extremely uneven application” of the norms laid down in Bachan Singh. The Law Commission, in its Report in 2015, said the constitutional regulation of capital punishment attempted in that case has failed to prevent death sentences from being “arbitrarily and freakishly imposed”. Justice Joseph seems to endorse the Commission’s assertion that “there exists no principled method to remove such arbitrariness from capital sentencing”.
In individual cases, much of the conversation about the maximum sentence that may be imposed usually revolves around the nature of the crime, its gravity and cruelty, and the number of fatalities. In recent times, public outrage, the need for deterrence, and the clamour for a befitting punishment to render substantial justice have dominated the discourse. Theories of punishment on whether it ought to be punitive, retributive, reformative or restorative are less relevant to the public imagination and the law enforcers when the crime is grave and heinous. There is a conflict between those who sense the danger of inconsistent application and those who believe in condign justice. This conflict can be resolved only if the debate is taken to a higher plane: a moral position that there shall be no death penalty in law, regardless of the nature, circumstances and consequences of an offence. The Supreme Court has covered considerable ground in limiting the scope, to the ‘rarest of rare cases’. Post-appeal reviews and curative petitions are routinely admitted. Review petitions are now heard in open court. The treatment of death row prisoners has been humanised, and there is scope for judicial review even against a sovereign decision denying clemency. If there still prevails a perception of arbitrariness in the way death sentences are awarded, the only lasting solution is their abolition. The views of the Law Commission and Justice Joseph should not be ignored.
B) Wage drag: on ILO’s Global Wage Report
The ILO’s report underlines the need for wage expansion that is robust and also equitable
The International Labour Organisation’s Global Wage Report has put into sharp relief one of the biggest drags on global economic momentum: slowing wage growth. Global wage growth, adjusted for inflation, slowed to 1.8% in 2017, from 2.4% in 2016, it shows. Worryingly, this is the lowest rate since 2008. Excluding China (given its high population and rapid wage growth it tends to skew the mean), the average was even lower (1.1% in 2017 against 1.8% in 2016). Across a majority of geographies and economic groupings, wage expansions were noticeably tepid last year. In the advanced G20 countries the pace eased to 0.4%, with the U.S. posting an unchanged 0.7% growth and Europe (excluding Eastern Europe) stalling at about zero. The emerging and developing economies in the G20 were not spared a deceleration, with the growth in wages slowing to 4.3%, from 4.9% in 2016. In the Asia and Pacific nations, where workers had enjoyed the biggest real wage growth worldwide between 2006 and 2017, it slid to 3.5% from the previous year’s 4.8%. The obvious impact of this low pace has been on global economic growth with consumption demand hurt by restrained spending by wage-earners. Slow wage growth prompted U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell to observe in June that “in a world where we’re hearing lots and lots about labour shortages — everywhere we go now, we hear about labour shortages — but where is the wage reaction? So it’s a bit of a puzzle.”
The ILO report observes that the acceleration of economic growth in high-income countries in 2017 was led mainly by higher investment spending rather than by private consumption. Extending the time horizon, it reveals that real wages almost tripled in the developing and emerging countries of the G20 between 1999 and 2017, while in the advanced economies the increase over the same period aggregated to a far lower 9%. And yet, in many low- and middle-income economies the average wage, in absolute terms, was so low it was still inadequate to cover the bare needs of workers. The intensification of competition in the wake of globalisation, accompanied by a worldwide decline in the bargaining power of workers has resulted in a decoupling between wages and labour productivity. The fallout has been the weakening share of labour compensation in GDP across many countries that the ILO notes “remain substantially below those of the early 1990s”. The Washington-based Economic Policy Institute uses the U.S. example to buttress the argument that widening inequality is slowing demand and growth by shifting larger shares of income “to rich households that save rather than spend”. For India’s policymakers, the message is clear: to reap the demographic dividend we need not only jobs, but wage expansion that is robust and equitable.
Meaning : continue to have (something); keep possession of(v).
Tamil Meaning : தக்கவைத்து
Synonyms : absorb
Antonyms : abandon
Example : “Labour retained the seat”
Meaning : the quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgement; the quality of being wise.(n)
Tamil Meaning : ஞானம்
Synonyms : acumen
Antonyms : ineptness
Example : “listen to his words of wisdom”
Meaning : based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
Tamil Meaning : தன்னிச்சையான
Synonyms : capricious
Antonyms : consistent
Example : “an arbitrary decision”
Meaning : the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
Tamil Meaning : தாக்கங்கள்
Synonyms : impact
Antonyms : source
Example : “the influence of television violence”
Meaning : put (something) down gently or carefully.(v)
Tamil Meaning : புனையப்பட்ட
Synonyms : establish
Antonyms : confuse
Example : “she laid the baby in his cot”
Meaning : the action or process of regulating or being regulated.(n)
Tamil Meaning : கட்டுப்பாட்டு
Synonyms : supervision
Antonyms : deregulation
Example : “the regulation of financial markets”
Meaning : a very unusual and unexpected event or situation.
Tamil Meaning : அசாதாரண
Synonyms : anomaly
Antonyms : conformity
Example : “the teacher says the accident was a total freak”
Meaning : force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone(v).
Tamil Meaning : திணிக்க
Synonyms : appoint
Antonyms : disorder
Example : “the decision was theirs and was not imposed on them by others”
Meaning : declare one’s public approval or support of(v).
Tamil Meaning : ஆதரவளிக்காது
Synonyms : affirm
Antonyms : attack
Example : “the report was endorsed by the college”
Meaning : a confident and forceful statement of fact or belief.
Tamil Meaning : வலியுறுத்தல்
Synonyms : allegation
Antonyms : desertion
Example : “his assertion that his father had deserted the family”
Meaning : an extremely strong reaction of anger, shock, or indignation.(n)
Tamil Meaning : கோபத்தை
Synonyms : violence
Antonyms : glee
Example : “her voice trembled with outrage”
Meaning : the action of discouraging an action or event through instilling doubt or fear of the consequences.
Synonyms : determent
Example : “nuclear missiles remain the main deterrence against possible aggression”
Meaning : a loud and confused noise, especially that of people shouting(n).
Tamil Meaning : ஆரவார
Synonyms : uproar
Example : “the questions rose to a clamour”
Meaning : provide or give (a service, help, etc.).
Tamil Meaning : வழங்க
Synonyms : distribute
Antonyms : hold
Example : “money serves as a reward for services rendered“
Meaning : of considerable importance, size, or worth(adj).
Tamil Meaning : கணிசமான
Synonyms : generous
Antonyms : broken
Example : “a substantial amount of cash”
Meaning : used to indicate duty or correctness, typically when criticizing someone’s actions.
Tamil Meaning : வேண்டும்
Synonyms : prerequisite
Antonyms : lacked
Example : “they ought to respect the law”
Meaning : inflicting or intended as punishment.
Tamil Meaning : தண்டனை
Synonyms : retaliatory
Antonyms : beneficial
Example : “he called for punitive measures against the Eastern bloc”
Meaning : punishment inflicted on someone as vengeance for a wrong or criminal act.
Tamil Meaning : பழிவாங்கும்
Synonyms : reprisal
Antonyms : forgiveness
Example : “employees asked not to be named, saying they feared retribution”
Meaning : the action or process of reforming an institution or practice.
Tamil Meaning : சீர்த்திருத்தத்து
Synonyms : realignment
Antonyms : worsening
Example : “the reformation of the Senate”
Meaning : a hole dug in the ground to receive a coffin or dead body, typically marked by a stone or mound.(n)
Tamil Meaning : கல்லறை
Synonyms : dignified
Antonyms : agitated
Example : “the coffin was lowered into the grave”
Meaning : (of a person or wrongful act, especially a crime) utterly odious or wicked.
Tamil Meaning : கொடிய
Synonyms : abhorrent
Antonyms : pleasant
Example : “a battery of heinous crimes”
Meaning : (of punishment or retribution) appropriate to the crime or wrongdoing; fitting and deserved.
Synonyms : equitable
Antonyms : imprecise
Example : “condign punishment was rare when the criminal was a man of high social standing”
Meaning : able to cure disease.
Synonyms : corrective
Antonyms : damaging
Example : “the curative properties of herbs”
Meaning : make (something) more humane or civilized.
Tamil Meaning : மனிதத்தன்மையோடு
Synonyms : temper
Example : “his purpose was to humanize prison conditions”
Meaning : mercy; lenience.
Tamil Meaning : கருணை
Synonyms : compassion
Antonyms : cruelty
Example : “an appeal for clemency”
Meaning : prove more powerful or superior.
Tamil Meaning : நிலவும்
Synonyms : abound
Antonyms : forfeit
Example : “it is hard for logic to prevail over emotion”
Meaning : the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
Tamil Meaning : கருத்து
Synonyms : approach
Antonyms : ignorance
Example : “the normal limits to human perception”
Meaning : the action of abolishing a system, practice, or institution.
Tamil Meaning : ஒழித்தல்
Synonyms : abrogation
Antonyms : approval
Example : “the abolition of the death penalty”
Meaning : regularly or frequently behave in a particular way or have a certain characteristic(v).
Tamil Meaning : முனைகிறது
Synonyms : contribute
Antonyms : dislike
Example : “written language tends to be formal”
Meaning : neither parallel nor at right angles to a specified or implied line; askew; crooked.(adj)
Tamil Meaning : சாய்க்க
Synonyms : slant
Antonyms : maintain
Example : “his hat looked slightly skew”
Meaning : (especially of a liquid) only slightly warm; lukewarm(adj).
Tamil Meaning : இளஞ்சூடான
Synonyms : warm
Antonyms : enthusiastic
Example : “she soaked a flannel in the tepid water”
Meaning : (of a motor vehicle or its engine) stop running, typically because of an overload on the engine(v).
Tamil Meaning : தாமதப்படுத்தும்
Synonyms : hamper
Antonyms : advance
Example : “her car stalled at the crossroads”
Meaning : characterized by reserve or moderation; unemotional or dispassionate(adj).
Tamil Meaning : கட்டுப்படுத்தும்
Synonyms : discreet
Antonyms : extroverted
Example : “his restrained, gentlemanly voice”
Meaning : make (previously unknown or secret information) known to others.
Tamil Meaning : வெளிப்படுத்துகிறது
Synonyms : acknowledge
Antonyms : conceal
Example : “Brenda was forced to reveal Robbie’s whereabouts”
Meaning : form or group into a class or cluster.
Tamil Meaning : தொகுக்கப்பட்ட
Synonyms : accumulate
Antonyms : detach
Example : “socio-occupational groups aggregate men sharing similar kinds of occupation”
Meaning : a structure of stone or brick built against a wall to strengthen or support it.(n)
Synonyms : abutment
Example : “the cathedral’s massive buttresses”
Meaning : the action of making or becoming more intense.(n)
Tamil Meaning : தீவிரப்படுத்துதல்
Synonyms : merger
Antonyms : decline
Example : “the intensification of the conflict”
Meaning : move smoothly along a surface while maintaining continuous contact with it.
Tamil Meaning : சறுக்கி விடப்பட்டு
Synonyms : accelerate
Antonyms : ascend
Example : “she slid down the bank into the water”
Meaning : strong and healthy; vigorous(adj).
Tamil Meaning : வலுவான
Synonyms : hearty
Antonyms : fragile
Example : “the Caplan family are a robust lot”
Meaning : fair and impartial.
Tamil Meaning : நியாயமான
Synonyms : decent
Antonyms : intolerable
Example : “the equitable distribution of resources”
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