THE HINDU EDITORIAL : JANUARY 18, 2019
THE HINDU EDITORIAL : JANUARY 18, 2019
Dear Banking Aspirants,
THE HINDU EDITORIAL – January 14, 2018, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like IBPS Clerk 2018 Mains Exam, Canara Bank PO – PGDBF 2018 and IBPS SO 2018. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.
A) Collegium controversy
An unusual change of decision brings the judicial appointments system under scrutiny
The controversial collegium system of judicial appointments is under public scrutiny once again. This time, the potential for embarrassment to the superior judiciary is much higher. Former Chief Justices of India, a sitting Supreme Court judge, and the Bar Council of India have taken exception to the collegium’s unusual action of revisiting decisions made at an earlier meeting, and recommending the elevation to the apex court of Justice Dinesh Maheshwari and Justice Sanjiv Khanna, instead of two judges whose names had been considered earlier. The allegation is not merely one concerning the seniority or the lack of it of the two appointees; rather, it is the much graver charge of arbitrarily revoking a decision made on December 12 last year. The official reasons are in the public domain in the form of a resolution on January 10. It claims that even though some decisions were made on December 12, “the required consultations could not be undertaken and completed” in view of the winter vacation. When the collegium met again on January 5/6, its composition had changed following the retirement of Justice Madan B. Lokur. It was then decided that it would be “appropriate” to have a fresh look at the matter, as well as the “additional material”. The only rationale for the names of Rajasthan High Court Chief Justice Pradeep Nandrajog and Delhi High Court Chief Justice Rajendra Menon being left out is the claim that new material had surfaced. However, it is not clear what the material is and how it affected their suitability.
Former Chief Justice of India R.M. Lodha is right in underscoring the institutional nature of decisions by the collegium. Can the retirement of one judge be a ground to withdraw a considered decision, even if some consultations were incomplete? There is little surprise in the disquiet in legal circles. Another curious element in the latest appointments is that Justice Maheshwari, who had been superseded as recently as last November, when a judge junior to him was appointed a Supreme Court judge, has been found to be “more suitable and deserving in all respects” than any of the other chief justices and judges. There is no objection to the elevation of Justice Khanna except his relative lack of seniority. There is little substance in this criticism, as it is now widely accepted that seniority cannot be the sole criterion for elevation to the Supreme Court. However, the fact that there are three other judges senior to him in the Delhi High Court itself — two of them serving elsewhere as chief justices — is bound to cause some misgivings. The credibility of the collegium system has once again been called into question. The recent practice of making public all resolutions of the collegium has brought in some transparency. Yet, the impression that it works in mysterious ways refuses to go away. This controversy ill-serves the judiciary as an institution.
B) Learning little
The reading and arithmetic abilities in rural schools are shockingly dismal
The latest assessment of how children are faring in schools in rural areas indicates there has been no dramatic improvement in learning outcomes. The picture that emerges from the Annual Status of Education Report, Rural (2018) is one of a moribund system of early schooling in many States, with no remarkable progress from the base year of 2008. Except for a small section at the top of the class, the majority of students have obviously been let down. The survey for 2018 had a reach of 5.4 lakh students in 596 rural districts. It should put administrators on alert that while 53.1% of students in Class 5 in rural government schools could in 2008 read a text meant for Class 2, the corresponding figure for 2018 stood at 44.2%; for comparison, private schools scored 67.9% and 65.1% for the same test in those years. Arithmetic ability showed a similar trend of under-performance, although there has been a slight uptick since 2016: an improvement of about 1.5 percentage points in government schools and 1.8 percentage points in private institutions, among Class 5 students. Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala and Haryana did better on the arithmetic question with over 50% students clearing it, compared to Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and even Karnataka, which scored below 20%. A significant percentage of students were not even able to recognise letters appropriate for their class, highlighting a severe barrier to learning.
Now that the ASER measure is available for 10 years, the Centre should institute a review mechanism involving all States for both government and private institutions, covering elementary education and middle school. A public consultation on activity-based learning outcomes, deficits in early childhood education, and innovations in better performing States can help. At present, children start learning in a variety of environments: from poorly equipped anganwadi centres to private nurseries. The enactment of the Right to Education Act was followed by a welcome rise in enrolment, which now touches 96% as per ASER data. Empowering as it is, the law needs a supportive framework to cater to learners from different backgrounds who often cannot rely on parental support or coaching. There is concern that curricular expectations on literacy and numeracy have become too ambitious, requiring reform. It is worth looking at innovation in schools and incentivising good outcomes; one study in Andhra Pradesh indicated that bonus pay offered to teachers led to better student scores in an independently administered test in mathematics and language. The solutions may lie in multiple approaches. What is beyond doubt is that governments are not doing their duty by India’s children.
Meaning : giving rise or likely to give rise to controversy or public disagreement(adj).
Tamil Meaning : சர்ச்சைக்குரிய
Synonyms : disputed
Antonyms : certain
Example : “years of wrangling over a controversial bypass”
Meaning : relating to or involving shared responsibility, as among a group of colleagues.
Synonyms : coactive
Example : “judges cultivate a collegial atmosphere in instructing the jury”
Meaning : critical observation or examination(n).
Tamil Meaning : கண்காணிப்பின்
Synonyms : inquiry
Antonyms : glance
Example : “every aspect of local government was placed under scrutiny“
Meaning : a feeling of self-consciousness, shame, or awkwardness(n).
Tamil Meaning : சங்கடம்
Synonyms : confusion
Antonyms : order
Example : “I turned red with embarrassment”
Meaning : a claim or assertion that someone has done something illegal or wrong, typically one made without proof(n).
Tamil Meaning : குற்றச்சாட்டு
Synonyms : accusation
Antonyms : exculpation
Example : “he made allegations of corruption against the administration”
Meaning : just; only(adv).
Synonyms : hardly
Antonyms : indefinitely
Example : “Gary, a silent boy, merely nodded”
Meaning : causing anxiety; worrying(adj).
Tamil Meaning : பற்றி
Synonyms : regarding
Antonyms : unrelatable
Example : “I find many of the comments very concerning”
Meaning : on the basis of random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system(adv).
Synonyms : forthwith
Antonyms : slowly
Example : “recurrent infection is arbitrarily defined as three or more infections a year”
Meaning : officially cancel (a decree, decision, or promise).
Synonyms : dismantle
Antonyms : allow
Example : “the men appealed and the sentence was revoked”
Meaning : state or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof.
Synonyms : demand
Antonyms : reply
Example : “the Prime Minister claimed that he was concerned about Third World debt”
Meaning : the nature of something’s ingredients or constituents; the way in which a whole or mixture is made up(n).
Synonyms : content
Antonyms : imbalance
Example : “the social composition of villages”
Meaning : having an outside part or upper layer, especially of a specified kind(adj).
Synonyms : appear
Antonyms : disappear
Example : “the upgrading of gravel roads to surfaced roads”
Meaning : eager to know or learn something.
Tamil Meaning : ஆர்வமாக
Synonyms : inquisitive
Antonyms : incurious
Example : “I began to be curious about the whereabouts of the bride and groom”
Meaning : take the place of (a person or thing previously in authority or use); supplant.
Synonyms : outmoded
Antonyms : modern
Example : “the older models of car have now been superseded”
Meaning : worthy of being treated in a particular way, typically of being given assistance(adj).
Tamil Meaning : தகுதியுடைய
Synonyms : due
Antonyms : undeserving
Example : “the deserving poor”
Meaning : the action or fact of raising or being raised to a higher or more important level, state, or position(n).
Tamil Meaning : உயரத்தில்
Synonyms : altitude
Antonyms : flat
Example : “her sudden elevation to the cabinet”
Meaning : an idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, especially one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence(n).
Synonyms : impact
Antonyms : cause
Example : “his first impressions of Manchester were very positive”
Meaning : difficult or impossible to understand, explain, or identify.
Synonyms : baffling
Antonyms : apparent
Example : “his colleague had vanished in mysterious circumstances”
Meaning : the action of assessing someone or something(n).
Tamil Meaning : மதிப்பீடு
Synonyms : estimate
Antonyms : criticism
Example : “the assessment of educational needs”
Meaning : perform in a specified way in a particular situation or over a particular period.
Synonyms : happen
Antonyms : fail
Example : “the party fared badly in the elections”
Meaning : move out of or away from something and become visible(v).
Synonyms : arrive
Antonyms : abandon
Example : “black ravens emerged from the fog”
Meaning : (of a person) at the point of death(adj).
Tamil Meaning : இறுதிக்கட்டதை
Synonyms : doomed
Antonyms : active
Example : “on examination she was moribund and dehydrated”
Meaning : a small increase or slight upward trend.
Synonyms : uptake
Example : “an uptick in foreign tourism”
Meaning : identify (someone or something) from having encountered them before; know again.(v)
Tamil Meaning : அடையாளம் கண்டு
Synonyms : observe
Antonyms : deny
Example : “I recognized her when her wig fell off”
Meaning : suitable or proper in the circumstances.(adj)
Tamil Meaning : அதற்கான
Synonyms : convenient
Antonyms : improper
Example : “this isn’t the appropriate time or place”
Meaning : a fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or access(n).
Tamil Meaning : தடை
Synonyms : blockade
Antonyms : assistance
Example : “the mountain barrier between Norway and Sweden”
Meaning : have or include (something) as a necessary or integral part or result(v).
Tamil Meaning : சம்பந்தப்பட்ட
Synonyms : associate
Antonyms : cancel
Example : “my job involves a lot of travelling”
Meaning : the action or process of formally consulting or discussing(n).
Tamil Meaning : ஆலோசனை
Synonyms : conference
Example : “they improved standards in consultation with consumer representatives”
Meaning : the way a thing turns out; a consequence(n).
Tamil Meaning : விளைவு
Synonyms : conclusion
Antonyms : cause
Example : “it is the outcome of the vote that counts”
Meaning : an excess of expenditure or liabilities over income or assets in a given period.
Tamil Meaning : பற்றாக்குறைகள்
Synonyms : shortfall
Antonyms : abundance
Example : “an annual operating deficit”
Meaning : the process of passing legislation(n).
Synonyms : acting
Antonyms : neglect
Example : “the enactment of equal pay legislation”
Meaning : relate to; be about(v).
Tamil Meaning : அக்கறை
Synonyms : burden
Antonyms : fun
Example : “the story concerns a friend of mine”
Meaning : having or showing a strong desire and determination to succeed(adj).
Synonyms : energetic
Antonyms : lethargic
Example : “a ruthlessly ambitious workaholic”
Meaning : the ability to read and write.
Tamil Meaning : கல்வியறிவு
Synonyms : learning
Antonyms : ignorance
Example : “tests of literacy and numeracy”
Meaning : make changes in (something, especially an institution or practice) in order to improve it.
Tamil Meaning : சீர்திருத்தம்
Synonyms : improve
Antonyms : damage
Example : “the Bill will reform the tax system”
Meaning : equivalent in value to the sum or item specified(adj).
Tamil Meaning : மதிப்பு
Synonyms : benefit
Antonyms : hindrance
Example : “jewellery worth £450 was taken”
Meaning : the action or process of innovating(n).
Tamil Meaning : கண்டுபிடிப்பு
Synonyms : addition
Antonyms : custom
Example : “innovation is crucial to the continuing success of any organization”
Meaning : motivate or encourage (someone) to do something; provide with an incentive.
Synonyms : charge
Example : “this is likely to incentivize management to find savings”
Meaning : point out; show(v).
Tamil Meaning : சுட்டிக்காட்டப்படுகிறது
Synonyms : determined
Antonyms : rejected
Example : “dotted lines indicate the text’s margins”
Meaning : come near or nearer to (someone or something) in distance or time(v).
Tamil Meaning : அணுகுமுறை
Synonyms : access
Antonyms : departure
Example : “the train approached the main line”