“A, an and the” are called Articles. There are two kinds of articles

(I) Indefinite article—A/An

(II) Definite article—The

(I) Use of Indefinite Article–A/An

  1. The article An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound. eg,

  1. She is an intelligent girl.

  2. He is an MP.

  3. You are an honest man.

  1. The article A is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound. eg,

  1. He is a university student.

  2. He is a European.

  3. He is a one-eyed man.

  1. A/An is used before a singular countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time representing no particular person or thing. eg,

  1. He has an axe.

  2. She is a lawyer.

  3. A boy came to my office.

  1. A/An is used to make a common noun of a proper noun. eg,

  1. My neighbour is a Daniel.

  2. She is a Lata Mangeshkar.

  3. His brother is a Shylock.

  1. A/An is used in exclamations before singular countable nouns. eg,

  1. What an interesting movie

  2. What a pretty girl

  3. What a lovely morning

  1. A/An is used in its original sense of one or any. eg,

  1. She wants a car.

  2. There are twelve inches in a foot.

  3. He bought a book.

(II) Use of Definite Article —The

The definite article The is used when we talk about a particular person or thing or one already mentioned. eg,

  1. Give me the book which you bought yesterday.

  2. The dress you want is out of stock.

  3. I met a girl. The girl was beautiful.

  1. When a singular noun represents a whole class. eg,

  1. The lotus is a beautiful flower.

  2. The cat loves comfort.

  3. The banyan is a useful tree.

  1. Before the first noun in ‘noun + preposition + noun’ construction. eg,

  1. The Bharat of Ramayana is an ideal brother.

  2. The gold of India is famous.

  3. She likes the sweets of Jaipur.

  1. Before names of mountain-ranges. eg,

  1. The Alps

  2. The Himalayas

  3. The Vindhyas

  1. Before names of groups of islands. eg,

  1. The Andamans

  2. The Hebrides

  3. The West Indies

  1. Before names of rivers, oceans, gulfs, deserts and forests. eg,

  1. The Ganges, The Amazon, The Nile

  2. The Arabian Sea, The Pacific Ocean, The Indian Ocean, The Persian Gulf, The Gulf of Mexico, The Sahara, The Black Forest

  1. Before names of religious and mythological books. eg,

  1. The Veda, The Ramayana, The Bible

  1. Before names of newspapers and magazines. eg,

1) The Hindustan Times, the Times of India, the Statesman

  1. Before names of heavenly bodies, directions and things unique of their kind. eg,

1) The earth, The sun, The moon, The east, The north, The equator

‘The’ is generally not used before the words ‘Heaven, Hell, God, Parliament’.

  1. Before names of historical buildings, places and events. eg,

1) The Taj Mahal, The Red Fort, The Pyramids, The Kaba, The Kurukshetra, The French Revolution

  1. Before musical instruments. eg,

  1. He can play the guitar.

  2. She is fond of playing on the piano.

  1. When musical instruments are used as countable nouns, A/AN is used. eg,

  1. We gave her a harmonium.

  2. I have bought a violin.

  1. Before religious communities and political parties. eg,

  1. The Hindus, The Muslims, The Sikhs, The BJP, The Congress Party, The Janata Dal

  1. Before names of ships, aeroplanes and trains. eg,

1) The Virat, The Vikrant, The Meghdoot

  1. The Shatabdi Express, The Punjab Mail, The Rajdhani Express

  1. Before the words denoting physical positions. eg,

1) The top, The bottom, The centre The inside, The front, The back

  1. Before parts of body. eg,

1) He was hit on the head.

2) She pulled the cat by the tail.

  1. You caught me by the arm.

  1. Before names of government departments and armed forces. eg,

The Judiciary, The Legislative, The Executive, The Army, The Navy, The Air Force

  1. Before the dates of months. eg,

The 6th February, The 21st of December

  1. Before the superlative degree. eg,

  1. Honesty is the best policy.

  2. She is the tallest girl in the class.

  3. The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.

  1. Before the names of a few countries and provinces. eg,

The USA, The USSR, The Netherlands, The Sudan, The Punjab

  1. Before comparative degree in case of a choice. eg,

  1. She is the prettier of the two sisters.

  2. He is the stronger of the two

  1. Before the ordinals. eg, – The first, The third, The ninth

Omission of Articles

The articles a, an, the are omitted

  1. Before names of days and months. eg,

  1. She will go on Monday.

  2. They are getting married in January.

  1. Before names of languages. eg,

  1. He cannot speak French.

  2. She is learning Marathi.

  1. Before names of subjects. eg,

  1. She has no interest in mathematics.

  2. Biology is his favourite subject.

  1. Before names of diseases. eg,

  1. AIDS is spreading like wild fire.

  2. He died of cancer.

But ‘The’ is used before the names of a few diseases. eg, the measles, the plague, the gout, the mumps.

  1. Before names of festivals and seasons. Eg,

  1. He will go to Canada in winter.

  2. She celebrated Christmas with her friends.

  3. He will go to Canada during winter.

  4. She went to Delhi during Diwali holidays.

  1. Before names of sports. eg,

  1. She plays tennis.

  2. We like cricket.

  1. Before the names of persons, villages, cities, districts, states and countries. eg,

  1. Anjali is a beautiful girl.

  2. London is a big city.

  3. Paris is the capital of France.

  1. Before names of meals. eg,

  1. They take lunch at 2 pm.

  2. Breakfast is ready.

  1. A’ is used when there is an adjective before names of meals. We use ‘the’ when we specify. eg,

  1. We had a late breakfast today.

  2. The lunch I had at the Rajmahal was nice.

  1. After possessive adjectives (my, our, your, his, her, their, its) and nouns in possessive case (Ram’s, lion’s). eg,

  1. This is Rahul’s car.

  2. That is my book.

  1. Before school, college, church, prison, hospital, bed, market, when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose. eg,

  1. She goes to church on Sunday.

  2. The criminal was sent to prison.

  3. I go to bed at 10 pm.

  1. Before man, life, death, art, science, when these words are used in the widest sense. eg,

  1. Man is mortal.

  2. Science has developed much in the past fifty years.

  1. Before the nouns used after rank of / title of. eg,

  1. He was promoted to the rank of Colonel.

  2. He was given the title of Nawab.



Subject-Verb Agreement means that subjects and verbs must always agree in number. Not only does a verb change its form to tell time, but it can also change its form to indicate how many subjects it has.

For example, take the verb “run.” In the present tense, the verb “run” changes its form to show that its subject is singular when its subject is anything but “I” or “you” or “we” or “they”.

Singular Subject Plural Subject

First Person: I run. We run.

Second Person: You run. You all run.

Third Person: He runs. She runs. The boy runs. They run.

It runs.

Do you notice that in the third person singular a “s” is added to the verb form? The fact is that all present tense verbs have an “s” added to them when the subject is in third person singular.

RULE 1: Use verbs that agree with a subject, not with a noun that is

part of a modifying phrase or clause between the verb and the


Example: The quality of these oranges was not good.

The discovery originated with an idea that has been around

for Years.

RULE 2: Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by ‘and’

require a plural verb.

Example: Gold and silver are precious metals.

She and I were playing carrom.

RULE 3: When the plural noun is a proper name for single objects

or collective unit, it must be followed by a singular verb.

Example: Darts is a popular game in England.

RULE 4: Some nouns which are singular in form , but plural in meaning

take a plural verb.

(cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, clergy, alphabet,

Offspring, information)

Example: “I need all information to process the case” said the

police Inspector.

RULE 5: Either , neither , each , each one, anyone, everyone ,

everybody, anybody, nobody, somebody, someone, many a, no

one must be followed by a singular verb.

Examples: She asked me whether either of the applicants was


Each of these substances is found in England.

Many a man was shot dead in a war.

RULE 6: Words joined to a singular subject by with , as well as, along

with, including, in addition to, besides, accompanied by ,

together with etc., are parenthetical .

The verb should therefore be put in the singular.

Example: Silver as well as gold , has demand in the market.

The Mayor, with his assistant, is present in the room.

RULE 7: Two or more singular subjects connected by or /nor require a

singular verb.

Example: Either the deer or the dog has been here.

Neither cat nor dog was to be found there.

RULE 8: When the subject joined by or/ nor are of different numbers,

the verb agrees with the nearer.

Example: Either the father or his sons have to attend the marriage.

RULE 9: Two nouns qualified by each or every , even though connected

by and, require a singular verb.

Example: Every girl and every boy was given a packet of chocolate.

RULE 10:Some nouns which are plural in form , but singular in meaning,

take a singular verb.

(Mathematics, classics, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows,

economics, poetry, news, measles, news, mumps, electronics,

tactics, physics)

Example: Mathematics is an interesting subject.

RULE 11: Pains and means take either the singular or the plural verb,

but the construction must be consistent.

Example: All possible means have been tried by us.

The pain was intolerable.

RULE 12: None, though properly singular, commonly takes a plural


Example: None of the boys are studying in the class.

RULE 13: A Collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is

thought of as one whole; plural verb when the individuals of

which it is composed are thought of;

(audience, committee, company, council, army, police , society,

board, cabinet, department, group, family, public, government,

organisation, team, club, crowd, minority, jury, class )

Example: The group works for the implementation of the scheme.

RULE 14: When a plural noun denotes period of time, amounts of money,

or quantities is considered as a single unit, singular verbs

are used.

considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular.

( Foot, metre, score, dozen, million, rupees, month )

Example: Twenty kilometres is a long walk.

Five months is too long a time to wait.

RULE 15: If two different singular nouns express one idea, the verb

should be in the singular form.

(Bread and milk, Rice and curry, Bread and butter)

Example: Bread and butter is good for breakfast.

RULE 16: When two singular subjects are practically synonymous the

verb should be in the singular form.

(Law and order, power and influence, power and position,

peace and prosperity)

Example: The law and order situation in Tamil Nadu was fully under


RULE 17: When (Not only-but also) is used to combine two subjects, the

verb agrees with the subject close to it.

Example: Not only Raj, but also his brothers were arrested.

Not only he but also his sister was eating.

RULE 18: Majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually

singular, if it is followed by a plural noun, it is usually plural.

Example: A majority is always right.

A majority of students are right.

RULE 19: The number/A number used as singular as well as plural

Example: A number of students are found there.

The number of people living in streets has reduced.

RULE 20: when a lot of, a great deal of, plenty of, most of and some of

refer to number, a plural verb is used.

Example: A lot of people were present at the meeting.

But, if these expressions refers to an amount, the verb is in the

singular number.

A lot of work has to be completed before we go. 

RULE 23: When sentences start with “there” or “here,” the subject will

always be placed after the verb, so care needs to be taken to

identify it correctly.

Example: There are four members in the team.

There is a problem in the worksheet.

RULE 24: A linking verb usually agrees with its subject, not with its


Example: The reason of her failure was excessive absences.

RULE 25: Plural verbs are required for many nouns that have no singular

form, such as proceeds, goods, ashes, remains, credentials,

premises, etc.,

Example: The goods are being despatched by goods train.

RULE 26: After such expressions as one-half of, two-thirds of, a part of,

a majority of

Example: Two- thirds of the mailing list has been sent.

RULE 27: In sentences containing the words one of, the verb is chosen

as follows:

Example: One of the pencils is missing from my bag.

RULE 28: All , any, more, most, some may be singular or plural

depending on the meaning, and take verbs accordingly.

Example: All the work has been finished.

RULE 29: The title of books or magazines are considered singular and

take singular verbs.

Example: The Hindu still has wide circulation.

RULE 30: When gerunds are used as the subject of a sentence, they take

the singular verb form of the verb; but, when they are linked by

and, they take the plural form.

Example: Singing and playing flute are my hobbies.

Tricky Cases of Subject-Verb Agreement

CASE #1: Making Subject and Verb Agree When Words Come Between Them.

Let’s compare these two sentences:

  • This box belongs in the attic.

  • This box of ornaments belongs in the attic.

In both sentences, the verb belongs agrees with its subject, box. Don’t let

the prepositional phrase in the second sentence fool you into thinking that ornaments is the subject.

Prepositional phrases (as well as adjective clauses, appositives, and participle phrases) often come between a subject and a verb. So to make sure that a verb agrees with its subject and not with a word in the phrase or clause; mentally cross out the interrupting group of words:

a) One (of my wife’s friends) is a pilot.

b) The people (who survived the explosion) are in a shelter.

c) A man (chasing dragons) is on the terrace.

Remember, then, that the subject is not always the noun closest to the verb. It is the noun (or pronoun) that names what the sentence is about, and it may be separated by several words from the verb.

CASE #2: Reaching Agreement When the Subject Is an Indefinite Pronoun.

Remember to add an -s to the end of the verb in the present tense if the subject is one of the indefinite pronouns listed below:

  • one (anyone, everyone, no one, someone)

  • anybody (everybody, somebody, nobody)

  • anything (everything, something, nothing)

  • each, either, neither

As a general rule, treat these words as third-person singular pronouns (he, she, it). In the following sentences, each subject is an indefinite pronoun and each verb ends in -s:

a) Nobody claims to be perfect.

b) Everybody plays the fool sometimes.

c) Each of the divers has an oxygen tank.

In that last sentence, note that has agrees with the subject each, not with divers (the object of the preposition).

CASE #3: Making Have, Do, and Be Agree with Their Subjects.

Although all verbs follow the same principle of agreement, certain verbs seem to be a little more troublesome than others. In particular, many agreement errors result from the misuse of the common verbs have, do, and be. We need to remember that the verb have appears as has if the subject is a singular noun or a third-person singular pronoun (he, she, it):

a) Kanchana has ghosts in her bedroom.

If the subject is a plural noun or the pronoun I, you, we, or they, use have:

a) The Ghostbusters have a new client.

Similarly, the verb ”do” appears as ”does” if the subject is a singular noun or, once again, a third-person singular pronoun (he, she, it):

a) Dhivya does the housework.

If the subject is a plural noun or the pronoun I, you, we, or they, use do:

a) Rajini and Kamal do the chores together.

The verb be has three forms in the present tense: is, am, are. Use is if the subject is a singular noun or a third-person singular pronoun (he, she, it):
a) Dr. Mathrabudam is unhappy.

Use am if the subject is the first-person singular pronoun (I):

a) I am not the person you think I am.

Finally, if the subject is a plural noun or the pronoun you, we, or they, use are:

a) The fans are in the stands, and we are ready to play.

Now, let’s take one more look at these three verbs–but from a different

angle. Sometimes a subject may follow (rather than precede) a form of the verb have, do, and be. As shown in the sentences below, this reversal of the usual order occurs in questions that require a helping verb:

a) Where has Rani parked the car?

b) What do you do in your free time?

c) Are we having a test today?

In all of these sentences, the present forms of have, do, and be serve as

helping verbs” and appear in front of their subjects.


Definition: Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant. Adjectives of quantity (some; much, little, enough, all, no, any, great, half, sufficient, whole) are used for Uncountable Nouns only. For example,

  1. Incorrect-I ate a few rice.

  2. Correct– I ate some rice.


  1. Numeral Adjectives are used for Countable Noun only and they show how many persons or things are meant or in what order a person or thing stands, For example,

  1. Incorrect– I have taught you little things.

  2. Correct– I have taught you a few things.

  1. When cardinal and ordinal are used together ordinal precedes the cardinal. For example,

  1. Incorrect– The four first boys will be given the chance.

  2. Correct– The first four boys will be given the chance.

  1. Later, latest refer to time, latter and last refer to position. For example,

  1. Incorrect– I reached at 10 am. But he was latter than I expected.

  2. Correct– I reached at 10 am. But he was later than I expected,

  1. Farther means more distant or advanced; further means additional. For example,

  1. Incorrect– He insisted on farther improvement.

  2. Correct– He insisted on further improvement.

  1. Each is used for the individual person or item, and the focus is on the individual, not the group. Every is also used for the individual, although the focus is shifted to the group.example,

  1. Incorrect– Every of the two boys will get a prize.

  2. Correct– Each of the two boys will get a prize.

  1. To express quantity or degree some is used in affirmative sentences, any in negative or interrogative sentences. For example,

  1. Incorrect– Have you bought some mangoes?

  2. Correct– Have you bought any mangoes?

  1. In comparing two things, the Comparative should be used, The Superlative should not be used.

  1. Incorrect– Which is the best of the two?

  2. Correct– Which is the better of the two?

  1. When two qualities of the same person or thing are compared, the Comparative in-er is not used. ‘More’ is used for this purpose.

  1. Incorrect– He is wiser than brave.

  2. Correct– He is more wise than brave.

  1. When comparison is made by means of a comparative, the thing compared should be excluded from the class of things with which it is compared by using ‘other’ or some such word.

  1. Incorrect– He is cleverer than any boy in the class.

  2. Correct– He is cleverer than any other boy in the class.

  1. When comparison is made by means of a superlative, the thing compared should include the class of things with which it is compared.

  1. Incorrect– He is the strongest of all other men.

  2. Correct– He is the strongest of all men.

  1. When two persons or things are compared, it is important that the same characteristic should be compared.

  1. Incorrect– The population of Bombay is greater than Delhi.

  2. Correct– The population of Bombay is greater than that of Delhi.

  1. Double comparatives and superlatives should not be used.

  1. Incorrect– He is the most cleverest boy in the class.

  2. Correct– He is the cleverest boy in the class.

  3. Incorrect– He is more wiser than his brother.

  4. Correct– He is wiser than his brother.

  1. The comparative Adjectives superior inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior prefer, etc., should be followed by ‘to’ instead of ‘than’.

  1. Incorrect– He is senior than me.

  2. Correct– He is senior to me.

  1. Adjectives like ‘unique’, ideal, perfect, complete, universal, entire, extreme, chief, full square and round, which do not admit different degrees of comparison should not be compared.

  1. Incorrect– It is the most unique thing.

  2. Correct– It is a unique thing.

  1. All the Adjectives which refer to the same Noun should be in the same degree of comparison.

  1. Incorrect– He is the wisest and honest worker in the office.

  2. Correct– He is the wisest and most honest worker in the office.

  1. ‘Elder’ and ‘eldest’ should be used for persons only, strictly speaking, they are used for the members of the same family only. ‘Older’ and ‘oldest’ are used for both persons and things.

  1. Incorrect– He is my older brother.

  2. Correct– He is my elder brother.



  1. To modify a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb, we use an Adverb. Carefully is an Adjective which cannot modify the Adverb very, therefore carefully (Adverb) must be used in place of Adjective careful. Too means more than required and it is used with Unpleasant Adjective. So, we cannot use too glad, too happy, too pleasant, too healthy.

For example,

  1. Incorrect– She writes very careful.

Correct– She writes very carefully.

  1. Incorrect– I am too glad to meet you.

Correct– I am very glad to meet you.

  1. A sentence which is based on ”Too and To” format, we cannot replace “to” with “so that”. If we replace “to” with “so that”, “too” must not be used with “cannot”.

For example,

  1. Incorrect– He is too weak so that he cannot walk.

  2. Correct– He is too weak to walk. Correct- He is so weak that he cannot walk.

  1. Much too is followed by Unpleasant Adjective, whereas too much is followed by Noun.

Much too + Unpleasant Adjective.

Too much + Noun.

For example,

  1. Incorrect– His failure is too much painful for me.

Correct– His failure is much too painful for me.

  1. Incorrect– His wife’s rude behavior gives him much too pain.

Correct– His wife’s rude behavior gives him too much pain.

  1. Quite and all are not used together. For example,

  1. Incorrect– He is quite all right.

  2. Correct– He is quite right or He is all right

  1. A/An + Fairly + Adjective + Noun or Rather + A + Adjective For example,

  1. a fairly good book

  2. rather a difficult problem.

  1. But we cannot use Pleasant Adjective with rather and Unpleasant Adjective with fairly. For example,

  1. Incorrect– It was a rather good book.

  2. Correct– It was a fairly good book.

  1. Enough, when used as an Adverb, is preceded by a positive degree Adjective or Adverb. For example,

  1. Incorrect– He is greater enough to pardon you.

  2. Correct– He is great enough to pardon you. ‘

  1. Two negatives cancel each other. Hence two negatives should not be used in the same sentence unless we make an affirmation.

  1. Incorrect-I have not got none.

  2. Correct– I have not got any.

  1. ‘At present’ means ‘at the present time’, ‘presently’ means ‘soon’. These should not be confused.

  1. Incorrect– Nothing more can be done presently. Correct– Nothing more can be done at present.

  2. Incorrect– He will come back at present. Correct– He will come back presently.

  1. ‘Much’ is used before past participles and Adjectives or Adverbs of comparative degree. ‘Very’ is used before the present participles and Adjectives and Adverbs of positive degree.

  1. Incorrect– The news is much surprising. Correct– The news is very surprising.

  2. Incorrect-I was very surprised at hearing the news. Correct– I was much surprised at hearing the news.

  1. Hardly is an Adverb which means rarely. Whereas hard is an Adjective which means tough, rigid. For example,

  1. Incorrect– It is a hardly job.

  2. Correct– It is a hard job.

  1. Ago is always used with Past Indefinite Tense. So, if ago is used in a sentence, that sentence must be in the Past Indefinite Tense. For example,

  1. Incorrect– He has come a month ago.

  2. Correct– He came a month ago.

  1. Early means “just after the beginning of anything” and soon means just after a point of time. For example,

  1. Roses bloomed early this spring.

  2. Come back soon after completing your work

  1. The sentence which starts with seldom, never, hardly, rarely or scarcely takes an inverse structure, (i.e) Verb + Subject – Structure. For example,

  1. Incorrect– Seldom I had seen such a beautiful sight.

  2. Correct– Seldom had I seen such a beautiful sight.

  1. Inversion is also used in a sentence which starts with here/there/ away/out/up/indoor or outdoor and Main Verb, or Aux + Main Verb is used before the Subject. For example,

  1. Incorrect– Away Sita went

  2. Correct– Away went Sita.


  1. Although and though are followed yet or comma (,).

Incorrect– Although she was tired, but she went on working.

Correct– Although she was tired, she went on working.

  1. ‘Both’ should be followed by ‘and’. It should be used in the positive sense. In the negative sense, ‘neither’….. .’nor should be used in place of ‘both’.

Incorrect – Both Ravi as well as Raja were present there.

Correct– Both Ravi and Raja were present there.

  1. ‘Either … or’, ‘neither …. nor: ‘both and’, ‘not only but also’ should be followed by the same parts of speech.

Incorrect– He not only lost his ticket, but also his luggage.

Correct– He lost not only his ticket but also his luggage.

  1. ‘Neither’ should be followed, by ‘nor’, ‘either’ should be followed by ‘or’. Both these should not be confused.

Incorrect– He washed neither his hands nor his face.

Correct– He washed neither his hands nor his face.

  1. ‘No sooner’ should be followed by ‘than’, not by ‘but’ or ‘then’.

Incorrect– No sooner did I enter the room then the students stood up.

Correct– No sooner did I enter the room, than the students stood up.

  1. ‘Hardly’ and ‘scarcely’ should be followed by ‘when’, but not by ‘than’ or ‘that’.

Incorrect-I had scarcely entered the room then the phone rang.

Correct-I had scarcely entered the room when the phone rang.



  1. When a Pronoun is used as the complement of the Verb ‘to be’, it should be in the nominative case.

  1. Incorrect– If I were him, I would not do it.

  2. Correct– If I were he, I would not do it.

  1. When the Pronoun is used as the object of a Verb or of a Preposition, it should be in the objective case.

  1. Incorrect– Let you and I do it. Correct– Let you and me do it.

  2. Incorrect– These presents are for you and I. Correct– These presents are for you and me.

  1. Emphatic Pronouns cannot stand alone as Subjects

  1. Incorrect– Himself did it. Correct- He himself did it.

  1. The Indefinite Pronoun ‘one’ should be used throughout if used at all.

a) Incorrect– One must not boast of his own success.

b) Correct– One must not boast of one’s own success.

  1. ‘Either’ or ‘neither’ is used only in speaking of two persons or things; ‘any’, ‘no one’ and ‘none’ is used in speaking of more than two.

  1. Incorrect– Anyone of these two roads leads to the railway station.

  2. Correct– Either of these two roads leads to the railway station.

  3. Incorrect– Neither of these three boys did his homework.

  4. Correct– No one of these three boys did his homework.

  1. ‘Each other’ is used in speaking of two persons or things; ‘one another’ is used in speaking of more than two.

  1. Incorrect– The two brothers loved one another.

  2. Correct– The two brothers loved each other.

  1. A Noun or Pronoun governing a Gerund should be put in the possessive case.

  1. Incorrect– Please excuse me being late.

  2. Correct– Please excuse my being late.

  1. A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

  1. Incorrect– Each of these boys has done their homework.

  2. Correct– Each of these boys has done his homework.

  1. When two or more Singular Nouns are joined by ‘and’, the Pronoun used for them must be Plural.

  1. Incorrect– Both Raju and Ravi have done his homework.

  2. Correct– Both Raju and Ravi have done their homework.

  1. When two or more Singular Nouns joined by ‘and’ refer to the same person or thing, a Pronoun used for them must be singular.

  1. Incorrect– The collector and District Magistrate is not negligent in their duty.

  2. Correct– The collector and District Magistrate is not negligent in his duty.

  1. When two or more singular nouns joined by ‘or’ or ‘nor’, ‘either … or’, ‘neither .. nor’, the Pronoun used for them should be singular.

  1. Incorrect– Neither Ravi nor Raju has done their homework.

  2. Correct– Neither Ravi nor Raju has done his homework.

  1. When two or more singular Pronouns of different persons come together, the Pronoun of second person singular (you) comes first, the pronoun of the first person singular (I) comes last and the pronoun of the third person singular (he) comes in between.

  1. Incorrect– I, You and he must work together.

  2. Correct– You, he and I must work together.

  1. After let, if a Pronoun is used, that Pronoun must be in the Objective Case. For example,

  1. Incorrect– Let he go there.

  2. Correct– Let him go there.