Dear Banking Aspirants,

THE HINDU EDITORIAL – February 6, 2018, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like  NIACL AO Prelims Exam, IBPS SO Mains Exam. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.

A) Unedifying episode: On Kolkata stand-off

The Supreme Court has defused the situation, but concerns remain over stand-off in Kolkata

In its ostensibly even-handed intervention in the stand-off between the Central and West Bengal governments over the manner of investigation of the Saradha Chit Fund case, the Supreme Court has de-escalated political tensions, at least for now. The decision allowed both sides in the face-off to claim “moral victory” — even if it was West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee who was forced to climb down from the aggressive posture she took in denying the Central Bureau of Investigation room to question Kolkata Police Commissioner Rajeev Kumar. However, while ordering him to cooperate with the CBI in “neutral” Shillong, the Court restrained the CBI from taking any coercive action against Mr. Kumar. The Police Commissioner and his Special Investigation Team investigating the chit fund case had been served a number of notices to appear before the CBI before it sent a team to his house in Kolkata. While Ms. Banerjee may have reason to believe that the timing of the CBI’s operation was politically motivated, her government’s response — manhandling and detaining the CBI officials — was shocking and inexcusable. In the polarised political atmosphere, her belligerence expectedly secured the backing of a large number of Opposition parties, and even had the Congress rally around her during an impromptu sit-in protest. However, in attempting to obstruct the CBI action in a court-ordered investigation, Ms. Banerjee once again demonstrated that she is prone to taking arguments over administrative procedures to the streets. A decade ago, she burnished her credentials as the Opposition leader who would dethrone the Left Front combine in West Bengal with her agitation over the Singur land acquisition. But her attempt now to bring the State, where she heads the government, to a grinding halt speaks poorly of her political maturity. Ms. Banerjee is free to read political motives into the actions of a Central agency — but she must conduct that fight politically and by heeding her responsibilities as a Chief Minister. To hold a dharna in aid of an officer who is required for questioning does her no credit.

There are bound to be questions whether this matter should have been escalated to such an unpleasant level. The CBI says there was no proper response to the earlier summonses it sent to the Police Commissioner, and alleges that he could have destroyed evidence that was initially gathered by the Special Investigation Team that he had supervised in the initial stage of the probe. But it is doubtful whether descending on a senior officer’s residence on a Sunday evening with a large team of officers was the right course of action for the CBI, as it was liable to be interpreted as a high-handed attempt to browbeat and embarrass the State government. The only way the CBI can escape this impression is by showing that it was justified in demanding the questioning of Mr. Kumar and establishing proof of its suspicions about his role in covering up the scam.

B) Timely review: On start-up tax

The very idea of an ‘angel tax’ on start-ups must be reconsidered

Start-ups troubled by the so-called angel tax may soon receive some concession from the government. On Monday, the Centre set up a five-member working committee to look into revising the norms of the angel tax imposed on start-ups. The tax, which was first introduced in 2012 to curb money-laundering through the sale of shares of private unlisted companies at bloated prices, has caused a lot of anguish among start-up investors in the country. Start-up owners have complained that income tax officials have asked many start-ups to cough up money when they try to attract capital into their entities by issuing new shares. For its part, the IT department fears that start-ups may be used as convenient tools to launder illegally acquired money, so a tax on investments beyond a certain threshold is necessary to deter such shady operations. But while the intent of such an angel tax may be justifiable, the arbitrary nature of it means the cost of unintended consequences could be larger than the supposed benefits. In trying to curb money-laundering, Section 56(2)(viib) of the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 gives income tax officials a free hand to harass even genuine start-ups looking to raise investments for their growth. Under the Act, the IT department is free to arbitrarily decide the fair value of a company’s share and tax start-ups if the price at which their new shares are sold to investors is higher than the fair value of these shares. The broad-brush tax on all investments means an unnecessary cost is imposed on the wider start-up community simply because of the lack of better means at the government’s disposal to tackle black money.

The committee set up by the government will, among other things, consider raising the threshold beyond which new investments into start-ups will be taxed. It is expected that start-ups with aggregate paid-up share capital and share premium of less than ₹25 crore, against the previous threshold of only ₹10 crore, will not be taxed while attracting new investment. This would definitely make life easier to a certain extent for angel investors and start-ups. But it will not address the real problem with the angel tax, which has to do with the unbridled power that it vests in the hands of the income tax authorities. Investors, foreign or domestic, may become wary of investing in new ideas when they are taxed while risking money on untested ventures. So the government should look to withdraw the angel tax and focus instead on building the capability to better identify and rein in illegal wealth. Otherwise it risks killing the nascent start-up ecosystem in the country.


1) ostensibly

Meaning : as appears or is stated to be true, though not necessarily so; apparently(adv).

Tamil Meaning : மேம்போக்காக

Synonyms : evidently

Antonyms : improbably

Example : “the party secretary resigned, ostensibly from ill health”

2) intervention

Meaning : the action or process of intervening(n).

Tamil Meaning : தலையீடு

Synonyms : interference

Antonyms : affront

Example : “a high degree of state intervention in the economy”

3) claim

Meaning : state or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof(v).

Tamil Meaning : கூற்றை

Synonyms : allegation

Antonyms : answer

Example : “the Prime Minister claimed that he was concerned about Third World debt”

4) aggressive

Meaning : ready or likely to attack or confront; characterized by or resulting from aggression.

Tamil Meaning : ஆக்கிரமிப்பு

Synonyms : combative

Antonyms : complaisant

Example : “he’s very uncooperative and aggressive”

5) posture

Meaning : the position in which someone holds their body when standing or sitting(n).

Synonyms : aspect

Antonyms : absence

Example : “I got out of the car in an alert posture”

6) restrained

Meaning : characterized by reserve or moderation; unemotional or dispassionate(adj).

Tamil Meaning : கட்டுப்படுத்தும்

Synonyms : discreet

Antonyms : extroverted

Example : “his restrained, gentlemanly voice”

7) coercive

Meaning : relating to or using force or threats(adj).

Tamil Meaning : நிர்ப்பந்தப்படுத்தப்படும்

Synonyms : violent

Antonyms : powerless

Example : “coercive measures”

8) detaining

Meaning : keep (someone) from proceeding by holding them back or making claims on their attention(v).

Synonyms : apprehend

Antonyms : liberate

Example : “she made to open the door, but he detained her”

9) inexcusable

Meaning : too bad to be justified or tolerated(adj).

Tamil Meaning : மன்னிக்கக்கூடாத

Synonyms : outrageous

Antonyms : acceptable

Example : “Matt’s behaviour was inexcusable”

10) belligerence

Meaning : aggressive or warlike behaviour(n).

Synonyms : antagonism

Antonyms : favor

Example : “Mortimer was eyeing Guy with belligerence”

11) prone

Meaning : likely or liable to suffer from, do, or experience something unpleasant or regrettable(adj).

Tamil Meaning : பாதிப்புக்குள்ளாகும்

Synonyms : decumbent

Antonyms : improbably

Example : “farmed fish are prone to disease”

12) burnished

Meaning : polish (something, especially metal) by rubbing(v).

Synonyms : furbish

Antonyms : dull

Example : “highly burnished armour”

13) dethrone

Meaning : remove from a position of authority or dominance(v).

Tamil Meaning : வீழ்த்துவோம்

Synonyms : depose

Antonyms : crown

Example : “he dethroned the defending title-holder”

14) agitation

Meaning : a state of anxiety or nervous excitement(n).

Tamil Meaning : கிளர்ச்சி

Synonyms : upheaval

Antonyms : calm

Example : “she was wringing her hands in agitation”

15) acquisition

Meaning : an asset or object bought or obtained, typically by a library or museum(n).

Synonyms : gain

Antonyms : loss

Example : “the legacy will be used for new acquisitions”

16) heeding

Meaning : pay attention to; take notice of(v).

Synonyms : obey

Antonyms : ignore

Example : “he should have heeded the warnings”

17) escalated

Meaning : increase rapidly(v).

Tamil Meaning : அதிகரித்தது

Synonyms : grow

Antonyms : decline

Example : “the price of tickets escalated”

18) gathered

Meaning : come together; assemble or accumulate(v).

Tamil Meaning : கூடி

Synonyms : accumulated

Antonyms : dispersed

Example : “as soon as a crowd gathered, the police came”

19) liable

Meaning : responsible by law; legally answerable(adj).

Tamil Meaning : பொறுப்பு

Synonyms : amenable

Antonyms : irresponsible

Example : “the credit-card company is liable for any breach of contract”

20) interpreted

Meaning : explain the meaning of (information or actions)(v).

Tamil Meaning : விளக்கம்

Synonyms : explained

Example : “the evidence is difficult to interpret”

21) embarrass

Meaning : cause (someone) to feel awkward, self-conscious, or ashamed(v).

Synonyms : agitate

Antonyms : appease

Example : “she wouldn’t embarrass either of them by making a scene”

22) scam

Meaning : a dishonest scheme; a fraud(n).

Tamil Meaning : ஊழல்

Synonyms : deceit

Antonyms : frankness

Example : “an insurance scam”

23) concession

Meaning : a thing that is granted, especially in response to demands(n).

Tamil Meaning : சலுகை

Synonyms : privilege

Antonyms : denial

Example : “the government was unwilling to make any further concessions”

24) imposed

Meaning : force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone(v).

Tamil Meaning : திணிக்கப்பட்ட

Synonyms : demand

Antonyms : disorder

Example : “the decision was theirs and was not imposed on them by others”

25) curb

Meaning : a check or restraint on something(n).

Tamil Meaning : கட்டுப்படுத்து

Synonyms : ledge

Antonyms : inside

Example : “plans to introduce tougher curbs on insider dealing”

26) anguish

Meaning : severe mental or physical pain or suffering.

Tamil Meaning : வேதனை

Synonyms : agony

Antonyms : delight

Example : “she shut her eyes in anguish

27) deter

Meaning : discourage (someone) from doing something by instilling doubt or fear of the consequences(v).

Tamil Meaning : தடுக்க

Synonyms : dampen

Antonyms : advance

Example : “only a health problem would deter him from seeking re-election”

28) intent

Meaning : intention or purpose(n).

Tamil Meaning : நோக்கம்

Synonyms : decided

Antonyms : indefinite

Example : “with alarm she realized his intent”

29) imposed

Meaning : force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone(v).

Tamil Meaning : திணிக்கப்பட்ட

Synonyms : appoint

Antonyms : disorder

Example : “the decision was theirs and was not imposed on them by others”

30) disposal

Meaning : the action or process of getting rid of something(n).

Tamil Meaning : அகற்றல்

Synonyms : clearance

Antonyms : building

Example : “the disposal of radioactive waste”

31) aggregate

Meaning : a whole formed by combining several separate elements(n).

Tamil Meaning : மதிப்பீட்டு

Synonyms : accumulated

Antonyms : uncombined

Example : “the council was an aggregate of three regional assemblies”

32) unbridled

Meaning : uncontrolled; unconstrained(adj).

Tamil Meaning : தடையற்ற

Synonyms : unchecked

Antonyms : restrained

Example : “a moment of unbridled ambition”

33) rein

Meaning : check or guide (a horse) by pulling on its reins(v).

Synonyms : curb

Antonyms : release

Example : “he reined in his horse and waited”

34) ventures

Meaning : undertake a risky or daring journey or course of action(v).

Tamil Meaning : முயற்சிகள்

Synonyms : endeavor

Antonyms : idleness

Example : “she ventured out into the blizzard”

35) demonstrated

Meaning : give a practical exhibition and explanation of (how a machine, skill, or craft works or is performed)(v).

Tamil Meaning : நிரூபித்துள்ளன

Synonyms : determine

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “computerized design methods will be demonstrated”

36) secured

Meaning : fix or attach (something) firmly so that it cannot be moved or lost(v).

Tamil Meaning : பாதுகாக்கப்பட்ட

Synonyms : achieve

Antonyms : forfeit

Example : “pins secure the handle to the main body”

37) impromptu

Meaning : done without being planned or rehearsed(adj).

Tamil Meaning : அவசர

Synonyms : unscripted

Antonyms : deliberate

Example : “an impromptu press conference”

38) evidence

Meaning : the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid(n).

Synonyms : indication

Antonyms : concealment

Example : “the study finds little evidence of overt discrimination”

39) alleges

Meaning : claim or assert that someone has done something illegal or wrong, typically without proof(v).

Synonyms : declare

Antonyms : deny

Example : “he alleged that he had been assaulted”

40) impression

Meaning : an idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, especially one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence(n).

Synonyms : impact

Antonyms : beginning

Example : “his first impressions of Manchester were very positive”