Dear Banking Aspirants,

THE HINDU EDITORIAL – January 14, 2018, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like  IBPS Clerk 2018 Mains Exam, Canara Bank PO – PGDBF 2018 and IBPS SO 2018. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.

A) Nudged into action: on the Lokpal Act

After long delays, a Supreme Court push is needed to establish the Lokpal

It should have never come to this on the Lokpal. That it requires a Supreme Court order to nudge the government to make any progress towards establishing the anti-graft institution is a poor commentary on its functioning. The court has asked the eight-member Search Committee under the Lokpal Act to recommend a panel of names before the end of February. This shortlist has to be sent to the Selection Committee, headed by the Prime Minister. It has taken five years since the Lokpal Act, 2013, received the President’s assent on January 1, 2014, for a Search Committee to even begin its work. It was formed only on September 27, 2018, after Common Cause, an NGO, filed a contempt petition against the government over the delay in constituting the authority despite a Supreme Court verdict in April 2017. It is true that setting up the Search Committee requires some groundwork, as its composition should be drawn from diverse fields such as anti-corruption policy, public administration, law, banking and insurance; also, half its membership should consist of women, backward class, minority and SC/ST candidates. However, it is the government’s duty to expedite this process and not cite it as a reason for delay. Even after it was formed, the Search Committee has been handicapped because of lack of office space, manpower, infrastructure and a secretariat. The court has now asked the government to provide the required infrastructure. In the past too, the court has admonished the Centre for the delay in creating the institution. In its April 2017 verdict, the court brushed aside the reason that the government was awaiting the passage of an amendment based on a parliamentary committee report and said there was no legal bar on the Selection Committee moving ahead with its work even if there was a vacancy in it.

There is a good deal of politics behind the delay. The Selection Committee, which includes the Lok Sabha Speaker, the Leader of the Opposition, the Chief Justice of India and an eminent jurist, has met in the past without Mallikarjun Kharge, who heads the Congress in the Lok Sabha. He has been skipping meetings, as he is aggrieved that the government has not made him a full member, and has roped him in as a ‘special invitee’. The government sticks to its view that he has not been recognised as the Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker. This minor issue has been resolved in respect of appointments to other posts such as CBI Director and Central Vigilance Commissioner by a simple amendment to treat the leader of the largest Opposition party as the Leader of the Opposition for this purpose. This amendment has not been brought about despite a parliamentary committee report endorsing the idea in December 2015. Nothing except the lack of political will to establish the Lokpal can explain years of delay.

B) Shape of the slowdown: on China’s economy

China’s capacity to manage its economic transition has implications the world over

The Chinese growth juggernaut is slowing down. The world’s second-largest economy has reported that its exports for December fell by 4.4%, the sharpest fall in two years amidst rising trade tensions with the United States and fears of a global economic slowdown. China’s trade surplus with the U.S. has increased to $323 billion, its highest level since 2016 and up 17% from a year ago. This is likely to put added pressure on Chinese exports to the U.S. Besides, China’s factory activity contracted to a two-year low by the end of December while car sales in 2018 dropped for the first time since 1990, pointing to faltering demand from Chinese consumers. There are increasing fears that the Chinese government may further drop its growth target to 6% this year, from 6.5% last year. Given its implications for global growth, markets across the world have naturally been worried about the fate of the Chinese economy. Its stock market, in particular, was the worst-performing among major economies last year. Apple, Jaguar Land Rover and other companies have warned of weak earnings due to a slowdown in their sales in China. Responding to fears of a serious slowdown in the economy, the People’s Bank of China on Wednesday injected cash worth $83 billion into the economy through open market operations in order to boost bank lending and overall economic growth. It is believed that the Chinese government may be prepping for a stimulus worth trillions of yuans to step up spending in the economy.

China has been struggling to transition from its earlier growth model led by cheap exports and huge capital investments into a more domestic consumption-led economy. In particular, the government and the central bank have in recent years tried to wean the economy off cheap debt that fuelled its impressive growth run. The Chinese central bank fully opened the credit taps of the economy in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis that threatened to derail growth. But even as it tries to steer the economy towards more consumption-led growth, the state has been wary of allowing economic sectors like real estate that were earlier boosted by the availability of cheap credit to go bust. A true restructuring of its export- and state-led economic model will not be possible until China allows the liquidation of uneconomical projects that were begun only because of the availability of ample amounts of cheap credit. This will be the first step towards building a more market-driven economy. But it is not clear whether China is willing to bite the bullet and stop feeding its economy with cheap credit. It may be tempted to go further and look at socialising the losses coming from defaults on business loans. None of this will be good for the long-term health of the Chinese or the global economy.


1) establish

Meaning : set up on a firm or permanent basis.

Synonyms : create

Antonyms : disprove

Example : “the scheme was established in 1975”

2) nudge

Meaning : prod (someone) gently with one’s elbow in order to attract attention.

Tamil Meaning : தூண்டல்

Synonyms : poke

Antonyms : discourage

Example : “people were nudging each other and pointing at me”

3) commentary

Meaning : an expression of opinions or offering of explanations about an event or situation(n).

Synonyms : comment

Antonyms ; disregard

Example : “a biting social commentary about the divide between rich and poor”

4) assent

Meaning : the expression of approval or agreement(n).

Tamil Meaning : ஒப்புதல்

Synonyms : concurrence

Antonyms ; denial

Example : “a loud murmur of assent”

5) contempt

Meaning : the feeling that a person or a thing is worthless or beneath consideration(n).

Tamil Meaning : அவமதிப்பு

Synonyms : antipathy

Antonyms ; approval

Example : “Pam stared at the girl with total contempt”

6) despite

Meaning : without being affected by; in spite of.

Tamil Meaning : போதிலும்

Synonyms : although

Antonyms ; exalt

Example : “he remains a great leader despite age and infirmity”

7) verdict

Meaning : a decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal case or an inquest.(n)

Tamil Meaning : தீர்ப்பு

Synonyms : conclusion

Antonyms ; accusation

Example : “the jury returned a verdict of not guilty”

8) diverse

Meaning : showing a great deal of variety; very different.

Tamil Meaning : பல்வேறு

Synonyms : disparate

Antonyms ; similar

Example : “a culturally diverse population”

9) consist

Meaning : be composed or made up of.

Synonyms : subsist

Antonyms ; energize

Example : “the crew consists of five men”

10) expedite

Meaning : make (an action or process) happen sooner or be accomplished more quickly.

Tamil Meaning : துரிதப்படுத்த

Synonyms : assist

Antonyms ; delay

Example : “he promised to expedite economic reforms”

11) cite

Meaning : refer to (a passage, book, or author) as evidence for or justification of an argument or statement, especially in a scholarly work.(v)

Tamil Meaning : மேற்கோள்

Synonyms : allege

Antonyms ; conceal

Example : “authors who are highly regarded by their peers tend to be cited”

12) eminent

Meaning : (of a person) famous and respected within a particular sphere.

Tamil Meaning : சிறந்த

Synonyms : esteemed

Antonyms ; common

Example : “one of the world’s most eminent statisticians”

13) aggrieved

Meaning : feeling resentment at having been unfairly treated.(adj)

Synonyms : disturbed

Antonyms ; comforted

Example : “they were aggrieved at the outcome”

14) endorsing

Meaning : declare one’s public approval or support of.

Tamil Meaning : ஒப்புதல்

Synonyms : advocate

Antonyms ; censure

Example : “the report was endorsed by the college”

15) delay

Meaning : declare one’s public approval or support of.

Tamil Meaning : தாமதம்

Synonyms : problem

Antonyms ; continuation

Example : “the report was endorsed by the college”

16) amendment

Meaning : a minor change or addition designed to improve a text, piece of legislation, etc.

Tamil Meaning : திருத்தத்தை

Synonyms : change

Antonyms ; damage

Example : “an amendment to existing bail laws”

17) resolved

Meaning : firmly determined to do something.

Tamil Meaning : தீர்க்கப்பட

Synonyms : agree

Antonyms ; begin

Example : “Constance was resolved not to cry”

18) recognised

Meaning : identify (someone or something) from having encountered them before; know again.

Tamil Meaning : அங்கீகாரம்

Synonyms : admit

Antonyms ; deny

Example : “I recognized her when her wig fell off”

19) Behind

Meaning : at or to the far side of something.

Tamil Meaning : பின்னால்

Synonyms : abaft

Antonyms ; front

Example : “Campbell grabbed him from behind”

20) composition

Meaning : the nature of something’s ingredients or constituents; the way in which a whole or mixture is made up(n).

Tamil Meaning : கலவை

Synonyms : balance

Antonyms ; imbalance

Example : “the social composition of villages”

21) lending

Meaning : the action of allowing a person or organization the use of a sum of money under an agreement to pay it back later.

Synonyms : afford

Antonyms ; decrease

Example : “balance sheets weakened by unwise lending”

22) amidst

Meaning : surrounded by; in the middle of.

Tamil Meaning : மத்தியில்

Synonyms : among

Example : “our dream home, set amid magnificent rolling countryside”

23) surplus

Meaning : an amount of something left over when requirements have been met; an excess of production or supply.

Tamil Meaning : உபரி

Synonyms : leftover

Antonyms ; essential

Example : “exports of food surpluses”

24) faltering

Meaning : losing strength or momentum.

Tamil Meaning : தடுமாறும்

Synonyms : hesitate

Antonyms ; hold

Example : “his faltering career”

25) implications

Meaning : the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

Tamil Meaning : தாக்கங்கள்

Synonyms : conclusion

Antonyms ; proof

Example : “the implication is that no one person at the bank is responsible”

26) warned

Meaning : inform someone in advance of a possible danger, problem, or other unpleasant situation.

Tamil Meaning : எச்சரித்தார்

Synonyms : advised

Example : “his father had warned him of what might happen”

27) prepping

Meaning : the action or process of preparing something, or preparing for something.

Tamil Meaning : தயார்படுத்தி

Synonyms : discipline

Antonyms ; idleness

Example : “after hours of prepping and cooking and stressing and a few near-breakdowns, Thanksgiving was wonderful”

28) stimulus

Meaning : a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.

Tamil Meaning : ஊக்க

Synonyms : impetus

Antonyms ; block

Example : “areas of the brain which respond to auditory stimuli”

29) struggling

Meaning : striving to achieve or attain something in the face of difficulty or resistance.

Tamil Meaning : போராடி

Synonyms : cope

Antonyms ; forget

Example : “these figures suggest more bad news for struggling homeowners”

30) wean

Meaning : accustom (someone) to managing without something which they have become dependent on.

Synonyms : discourage

Example : “the doctor tried to wean her off the sleeping pills”

31) impressive

Meaning : evoking admiration through size, quality, or skill; grand, imposing, or awesome.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : ஈர்க்கக்கூடிய

Synonyms : dramatic

Antonyms ; insignificant

Example : “an impressive view of the mountains”

32) aftermath

Meaning : the consequences or after-effects of a significant unpleasant event.

Tamil Meaning : பின்னர்

Synonyms : impact

Antonyms ; cause

Example : “food prices soared in the aftermath of the drought”

33) steer

Meaning : guide or control the movement of (a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft), for example by turning a wheel or operating a rudder.

Tamil Meaning : விலகி

Synonyms : govern

Antonyms ; abandon

Example : “he steered the boat slowly towards the busy quay”

34) wary

Meaning : feeling or showing caution about possible dangers or problems.

Tamil Meaning : எச்சரிக்கையாக

Synonyms : attentive

Antonyms ; careless

Example : “dogs which have been mistreated often remain very wary of strangers”

35) further

Meaning : more distant in space than something else of the same kind.

Tamil Meaning : மேலும்

Synonyms : more

Example : “two men were standing at the further end of the clearing”

36) ample

Meaning : enough or more than enough; plentiful.

Tamil Meaning : போதிய

Synonyms : bountiful

Antonyms ; cramped

Example : “there is ample time for discussion”

37) tempted

Meaning : entice or try to entice (someone) to do something that they find attractive but know to be wrong or unwise.

Tamil Meaning : ஆசை

Synonyms : allured

Antonyms ; disinclined

Example : “there’ll always be someone tempted by the rich pickings of poaching”

38) defaults

Meaning : failure to fulfil an obligation, especially to repay a loan or appear in a law court.

Tamil Meaning : இயல்புநிலைக்கு

Synonyms : absence

Antonyms ; abundance

Example : “the company will have to restructure its debts to avoid default”

39) feeding

Meaning : supply with material or power.

Synonyms : deliver

Antonyms ; deplete

Example : “a radial circuit fed by a 20 amp fuse”

40) consumption

Meaning : the action of using up a resource.

Tamil Meaning : நுகர்வு

Synonyms : drinking

Antonyms ; creation

Example : “industrialized countries should reduce their energy consumption”