Dear Banking Aspirants,

THE HINDU EDITORIAL – December 28, 2018, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like  IBPS Clerk 2018, Canara Bank PO – PGDBF 2018 and IBPS SO 2018. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.

A) Snooping or saving? on proposed online surveillance

Proposed rules for online monitoring should balance legitimate interest with privacy

Laws seeking to regulate online activity, especially on social media, will have to be tested against two fundamental rights: free speech and privacy. Regulations that abridge these rights tend to operate in both positive and negative ways. For instance, statutory norms relating to data protection are seen as essential to protect citizens from any breach of their informational privacy; but attempts to regulate online content are seen with suspicion. The latter category evokes doubt whether they violate their freedom of expression (as enforcement of such rules may involve blocking websites, disabling accounts, removing content and intercepting communication), and amount to surveillance that breaches privacy. Two official documents, one of them a draft proposal, that seek to introduce changes in the way rules for interception and monitoring of computer-based information are applied have caused a furore. The first was an order authorising 10 agencies under the Centre to implement Section 69(1) of the Information Technology Act, as amended in 2008, which allows interception, monitoring and decryption of information transmitted through or stored in a computer resource. The other is a draft proposing changes to the rules framed in 2011 for “intermediaries” such as Internet and network service providers and cyber-cafes. While the order listing 10 agencies does not introduce any new rule for surveillance, the latter envisages new obligations on service providers

A critical change envisaged is that intermediaries should help identify the ‘originator’ of offending content. Many were alarmed by the possibility for surveillance and monitoring of personal computers that this rule throws up. The government has sought feedback from social media and technology companies, but it appears that even services that bank on end-to-end encryption may be asked to open up a backdoor to identify ‘originators’ of offending material. There is justified concern that attempts are on to expand the scope for surveillance at a time when the government must be looking at ways to implement the Supreme Court’s landmark decision holding that privacy is a fundamental right. Some of these rules, originally framed in 2009, may have to be tested against the privacy case judgment, now that the right has been clearly recognised. It is indeed true that the court has favoured stringent rules to curb online content that promotes child pornography or paedophilia, foments sectarian violence or activates lynch-mobs. While the exercise to regulate online content is necessary, it is important that while framing such rules, a balance is struck between legitimate public interest and individual rights. And it will be salutary if judicial approval is made an essential feature of all interception and monitoring decisions.

B) Battle for Dhaka

Bangladesh goes to the polls amid allegations of high-handedness by the government

Demands by the Opposition in Bangladesh for the resignation of the Chief Election Commissioner just four days ahead of the December 30 parliamentary election reflect the bitter divisions that have undermined the credibility of government agencies. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party, the main constituent of the Opposition Jatiya Oikya Front, claims that 9,200 of its activists have been arrested since the election schedule was announced. The country has seen a spike in political violence, mainly targeting the Opposition. The government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina denies the allegations and blames the BNP for violence. Last week, Mahbub Talukdar, an election commissioner, said there was no level playing field between the ruling Awami League and the Opposition. In a report published on December 22, Human Rights Watch said that “arrests and other repressive measures… have contributed to a climate of fear”. Ever since democracy was restored in 1990-91, election seasons have been tumultuous. In the past when the BNP was in power, it had refused to step down after its tenure ended. In 1996, the Awami League led mass movements for elections, while in 2006 a military-backed caretaker government postponed the election, which was finally held in December 2008. Since then, Ms. Hasina has held power.

This time, she is seeking re-election with a formidable record in government. During the last 10 years the economy has seen a relatively high growth rate, hitting 7.8% last fiscal. Bangladesh also improved on social indicators over the past decade. While the Sheikh Hasina government takes credit for this as well as its tough stand on Islamist militancy, it faces criticism for its authoritarian turn. The passing of the Digital Security Bill and the crackdown on student protests in Dhaka drew flak even from Awami League supporters. On the other side, the Opposition is trying to channel the resentment towards the government. Khaleda Zia, BNP leader and a former Prime Minister, is disqualified from contesting as she is in prison for corruption, and the Opposition has brought in Kamal Hossain, a jurist who was a minister in Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s government, to lead the alliance. But the Opposition’s tacit alliance with the Jamaat-e-Islami, the militant Islamist party whose registration with the Election Commission was revoked after a 2013 court ruling, has been alarming. BNP workers too have been involved in violent incidents. For the Awami League, the election should have been an opportunity to break with the history of violence and seek the mandate based on its performance. But its increasing tendency to use force against the Opposition and the violence by its party activists have already marred the election process.


1) abridge

Meaning : shorten (a book, film, speech, etc.) without losing the sense.(v)

Tamil Meaning : குறுக்கு

Synonyms : curtail

Antonyms : extend

Example : “an abridged text of his speech”

2) tend

Meaning : regularly or frequently behave in a particular way or have a certain characteristic(v).

Tamil Meaning : முனைகின்றன

Synonyms : bear

Antonyms : dislike

Example : “written language tends to be formal”

3) statutory

Meaning : required, permitted, or enacted by statute.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : சட்டரீதியான

Synonyms : legal

Antonyms : illicit

Example : “statutory controls over prices”

4) breach

Meaning : an act of breaking or failing to observe a law, agreement, or code of conduct.(n)

Tamil Meaning : மீறினால்

Synonyms : crack

Antonyms : closing

Example : “a breach of confidence”

5) suspicion

Meaning : a feeling or thought that something is possible, likely, or true.(n)

Tamil Meaning : சந்தேகத்தின்

Synonyms : conjecture

Antonyms : certainty

Example : “she had a sneaking suspicion that he was laughing at her”

6) evokes

Meaning : bring or recall (a feeling, memory, or image) to the conscious mind.(v)

Synonyms : conjure

Antonyms : calm

Example : “the sight evoked pleasant memories of his childhood”

7) enforcement

Meaning : the act of compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation.(n)

Tamil Meaning : அமலாக்க

Synonyms : prosecution

Antonyms : abandon

Example : “the strict enforcement of environmental regulations”

8) intercepting

Meaning : obstruct (someone or something) so as to prevent them from continuing to a destination.(v)

Tamil Meaning : குறுக்கிடுகிறது

Synonyms : ambush

Antonyms : allow

Example : “intelligence agencies intercepted a series of telephone calls”

9) furore

Meaning : an outbreak of public anger or excitement(n).

Tamil Meaning : பரபரப்பு

Example : “the verdict raised a furore over the role of courtroom psychiatry”

10) envisages

Meaning : contemplate or conceive of as a possibility or a desirable future event.

Tamil Meaning : உதவுகிறது

Synonyms : behold

Example : “the Rome Treaty envisaged free movement across frontiers”

11) sought

Meaning : attempt to find (something).(v)

Tamil Meaning : முயன்று

Synonyms : desired

Example : “they came here to seek shelter from biting winter winds”

12) concern

Meaning : relate to; be about.(v)

Tamil Meaning : அக்கறை

Synonyms : interest

Antonyms : pastime

Example : “the story concerns a friend of mine”

13) implement

Meaning : a tool, utensil, or other piece of equipment that is used for a particular purpose(n).

Tamil Meaning : செயல்படுத்த

Synonyms : utensil

Antonyms : exempt

Example : “garden implements”

14) indeed

Meaning : used to emphasize a statement or response confirming something already suggested(adv).

Tamil Meaning : உண்மையில்

Synonyms : certainly

Antonyms : doubtfully

Example : “it was not expected to last long, and indeed it took less than three weeks”

15) stringent

Meaning : (of regulations, requirements, or conditions) strict, precise, and exacting.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : கடுமையான

Synonyms : demanding

Antonyms : amenable

Example : “stringent guidelines on air pollution”

16) curb

Meaning : a check or restraint on something.

Tamil Meaning : கட்டுப்படுத்து

Synonyms : restraint

Antonyms : center

Example : “plans to introduce tougher curbs on insider dealing”

17) Refused

Meaning : indicate or show that one is not willing to do something.

Tamil Meaning : மறுத்து

Synonyms : denied

Antonyms : allowed

Example : “I refused to answer”

18) foments

Meaning : instigate or stir up (an undesirable or violent sentiment or course of action(v).

Tamil Meaning : தூண்டிவிடும்

Synonyms : arouse

Antonyms : deter

Example : “they accused him of fomenting political unrest”

19) salutary

Meaning : (especially with reference to something unwelcome or unpleasant) producing good effects; beneficial.

Synonyms : healthful

Example : “it failed to draw salutary lessons from Britain’s loss of its colonies”

20) legitimate

Meaning : conforming to the law or to rules.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : முறையான

Synonyms : appropriate

Antonyms : abnormal

Example : “his claims to legitimate authority”

21) undermined

Meaning : erode the base or foundation of (a rock formation).

Synonyms : appropriate

Antonyms : abnormal

Example : “the flow of water had undermined pillars supporting the roof”

22) claims

Meaning : state or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof.(v)

Tamil Meaning : கூற்றுக்கள்

Synonyms : allegation

Antonyms : reply

Example : “the Prime Minister claimed that he was concerned about Third World debt”

23) denies

Meaning : state that one refuses to admit the truth or existence of.

Tamil Meaning : மறுக்கிறார்

Synonyms : contradict

Antonyms : accept

Example : “both firms deny any responsibility for the tragedy”

24) repressive

Meaning : (especially of a social or political system) inhibiting or restraining personal freedom.

Tamil Meaning : அடக்குமுறை

Synonyms : restrictive

Example : “a repressive regime”

25) tumultuous

Meaning : making an uproar or loud, confused noise(adj).

Tamil Meaning : கொந்தளிப்பான

Synonyms : fierce

Antonyms : calm

Example : “tumultuous applause”

26) tenure

Meaning : the holding of an office(n).

Tamil Meaning : பதவி

Synonyms : occupation

Antonyms : misconception

Example : “his tenure of the premiership would be threatened”

27) restored

Meaning : bring back or re-establish (a previous right, practice, or situation).

Tamil Meaning : மீண்டும்

Synonyms : refreshed

Example : “the government restored confidence in the housing market”

28) essential

Meaning : absolutely necessary; extremely important.”it is essential to keep up-to-date records”(adj)

Tamil Meaning : அத்தியாவசிய

Synonyms : crucial

Antonyms : auxiliary

Example : “it is essential to keep up-to-date records”

29) violate

Meaning : break or fail to comply with (a rule or formal agreement).

Tamil Meaning : மீறும்

Synonyms : breach

Antonyms : assist

Example : “they violated the terms of a ceasefire”

30) regulate

Meaning : control or maintain the rate or speed of (a machine or process) so that it operates properly.(v)

Tamil Meaning : கட்டுப்படுத்தும்

Synonyms : adjust

Antonyms : damage

Example : “a hormone which regulates metabolism”

31) formidable

Meaning : inspiring fear or respect through being impressively large, powerful, intense, or capable(adj).

Tamil Meaning : வல்லமைமிக்க

Synonyms : dangerous

Antonyms : calm

Example : “a formidable opponent”

32) criticism

Meaning : the expression of disapproval of someone or something on the basis of perceived faults or mistakes(n).

Tamil Meaning : திறனாய்வு

Synonyms : comment

Antonyms : neglect

Example : “he received a lot of criticism”

33) flak

Meaning : strong criticism.

Tamil Meaning : சம்பவத்தை

Synonyms : abuse

Antonyms : approval

Example : “you must be strong enough to take the flak if things go wrong”

34) resentment

Meaning : bitter indignation at having been treated unfairly(n).

Tamil Meaning : சீற்றமாக

Synonyms : acrimony

Antonyms : calmness

Example : “his resentment at being demoted”

35) contesting

Meaning : engage in competition to attain (a position of power)(v).

Tamil Meaning : போட்டியிடும்

Synonyms : litigate

Antonyms : agree

Example : “she declared her intention to contest the presidency”

36) tacit

Meaning : understood or implied without being stated.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : மறைமுகமான

Synonyms : implicit

Antonyms : stated

Example : “your silence may be taken to mean tacit agreement”

37) revoked

Meaning : officially cancel (a decree, decision, or promise).(v)

Synonyms : abolish

Antonyms : affirm

Example : “the men appealed and the sentence was revoked”

38) tendency

Meaning : an inclination towards a particular characteristic or type of behaviour.(n)

Synonyms : impulse

Antonyms : dislike

Example : “for students, there is a tendency to socialize in the evenings”

39) mandate

Meaning : an official order or commission to do something.

Synonyms : decree

Antonyms : breach

Example : “a mandate to seek the release of political prisoners”

40) marred

Meaning : impair the quality or appearance of; spoil.

Tamil Meaning : அழிவு

Synonyms : blight

Antonyms : assist

Example : “violence marred a number of New Year celebrations”



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