Dear Banking Aspirants,

THE HINDU EDITORIAL – December 31, 2018, is one of the must-read section for the competitive exams like  IBPS Clerk 2018 Mains Exam, Canara Bank PO – PGDBF 2018 and IBPS SO 2018. These topics are widely expected to be asked in the reading comprehension, Cloze Test or Error Detection in the forthcoming exams. So gear up your Exam preparation and learn new words daily.

Check the Previous Day’s – THE HINDU EDITORIAL here

A) Mind the gap: on fiscal deficit

Revenue trends underline the government’s challenge on the fiscal consolidation front

Eight months into the financial year, the Centre’s fiscal deficit has already overshot the full year’s budget estimate by as much as ₹92,349 crore. And given last year’s fiscal slippage — the deficit in the revised estimates for 2017-18 was 3.5% of GDP, wider than the 3.2% originally targeted — the augury is far from reassuring. While total expenditure growth, at 9.1% so far this year, has remained below the budget projection for a 10.1% increase, worryingly growth-inducing capital spending is set on an underwhelming trajectory. The 4% increase over the eight-month period is less than half the 9.9% growth the Centre had budgeted for the year. However, it is the trends in revenue that give cause for disquiet. In his annual budget presented in February, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had projected revenue receipts to show a healthy 14.6% increase from the revised estimates for the preceding year, on the back of a 16.6% jump in net tax revenue. Granting that tax revenue does tend to bunch up and get skewed with an upward bias into the final quarter, the April-November revenue receipts and net tax revenue growth numbers, at 8.1% and 4.6% respectively, are far from reassuring. If there is a silver lining on the revenue front, it is the buoyancy seen in non-tax revenue, which surged more than 31%, putting the government comfortably on track to meet the budget estimate for a 3.9% increase. Still, non-tax revenue is budgeted to account for just over a seventh of total revenue and it is hard to see it helping bridge anything more than the smallest of shortfalls in tax receipts.

There is another factor to contend with in sizing up the fiscal calculus this year. With the general election only a few months away, the government needs to avoid the temptation to open the spigot with an eye on the political benefits that it may see accruing. Some of the expenditure plans it has committed to recently have either been factored in or will at most impact the margins — be it public sector bank recapitalisation or an increase in the quantum of incentives for the export of onions to reverse the slide in prices. But the bigger challenge remains in finding ways to rustle up the requisite revenue to keep the deficit from slipping for a second year running. The seven public sector enterprises that have been cleared by the Cabinet for share sales as part of the disinvestment programme are, at best, only likely to partly help meet the budgeted non-debt capital receipts target of ₹92,199 crore. As the Reserve Bank never tires of cautioning, the onus is on the government to avoid further fiscal slippage as it could hurt the economy by crowding out vital private investment. This at a time when it has just been showing signs of a revival.

B) HIV reality check

Two lives, of a donor and a recipient, are devastated by lapses in blood screening

A 23-year-old pregnant woman in Tamil Nadu tested positive for HIV after receiving a unit of blood at a government hospital blood bank, indicating glaring lapses in screening procedures. The blood was donated on November 30 and transfused to the pregnant woman on December 3. Testing all donated blood units for a number of transfusion-transmissible infections, including HIV, is mandatory in India. The ELISA test used in all blood banks to screen for HIV has very high levels of sensitivity to diagnose samples positive for the virus. It can be said with certainty that the blood bank had failed to screen the blood for HIV. The question of testing the donated blood for HIV during the window period (the time between potential exposure to HIV and when the test reveals for sure if the person has HIV) does not arise as the donor’s HIV-positive status became known in 2016 when he donated blood at the same blood bank. Since 2004, prior to donation, all blood banks are required to obtain from donors written consent as to whether they wish to be informed about a positive test result. In case a donor tests positive for HIV, blood banks are required to refer the donors to designated voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCTCs) for disclosure and counselling. That the blood bank tried but failed to contact the donor in 2016 indicates that the donor had consented to be informed of a positive result. In a further tragic twist, he found out elsewhere that he was HIV-positive, and dutifully contacted the hospital on December 10, but his blood had already been transfused by then. On Sunday he passed away after consuming poison.

Studies show that blood banks in India have a success rate of less than 50% in contacting donors who have tested positive for transfusion-transmissible infections.

Under the 2004 National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) Action Plan, VCTCs are required to inform the blood bank of a donor’s HIV-positive status to stop the person from donating blood in the future only when the confirmatory test done at the VCTC too is positive. Since only half of the consented donors are contactable and even fewer visit a VCTC, it is imperative that NACO finds a viable alternative without compromising the donor’s identity. The focus should also be on creating awareness among donors to visit a VCTC to confirm their HIV status when alerted by blood banks. After all, timely confirmation helps donors start on early treatment to keep the virus under check and take precautionary measures to reduce the risk of infecting their partners and others through sexual and other kinds of contact and through blood donation. After winning a protracted battle to keep away professional donors from donating blood by encouraging voluntary donation, it is time blood banks and NACO worked to make safe blood availability a reality at all times.


1) deficit

Meaning : an excess of expenditure or liabilities over income or assets in a given period.(n)

Tamil Meaning : பற்றாக்குறை

Synonyms : shortfall

Antonyms : enough

Example : “an annual operating deficit”

2) slippage

Meaning : failure to meet a standard or deadline; the extent of this.

Synonyms : glide

Antonyms : escalation

Example : “slippage on any job will entail slippage on the overall project”

3) revised

Meaning : reconsider and alter (something) in the light of further evidence.

Tamil Meaning : திருத்தப்பட்ட

Synonyms : adjusted

Antonyms : kept

Example : “he had cause to revise his opinion a moment after expressing it”

4) augury

Meaning : a sign of what will happen in the future; an omen.

Tamil Meaning : சகுனம்

Synonyms : boding

Example : “they heard the sound as an augury of death”

5) reassuring

Meaning : say or do something to remove the doubts and fears of (someone).(v)

Tamil Meaning : உறுதியளிக்கிறேன்

Synonyms : assure

Antonyms : annoy

Example : “he understood her feelings and tried to reassure her”

6) inducing

Meaning : succeed in persuading or leading (someone) to do something.

Tamil Meaning : தூண்டும்

Synonyms : activate

Antonyms : destroy

Example : “the pickets induced many workers to stay away”

7) underwhelming

Meaning : fail to impress or make a positive impact on (someone); disappoint.(v)

Synonyms : disappoint

Example : “American voters seem underwhelmed by the choices for president”

8) disquiet

Meaning : a feeling of worry or unease.(n)

Tamil Meaning : அமைதியின்மை

Synonyms : anxiety

Antonyms : calm

Example : “public disquiet about animal testing”

9) bunch

Meaning : a number of things, typically of the same kind, growing or fastened together.(n)

Synonyms : assortment

Antonyms : individual

Example : “a bunch of grapes”

10) skewed

Meaning : make biased or distorted in a way that is regarded as inaccurate, unfair, or misleading.

Tamil Meaning : திரித்துக் கூற

Synonyms : bias

Antonyms : maintain

Example : “the curriculum is skewed towards the practical subjects”

11) reassuring

Meaning : cause or enable (a condition or situation) to continue.(v)

Tamil Meaning : பராமரிக்க

Synonyms : continue

Antonyms : abandon

Example : “the need to maintain close links between industry and schools”

12) buoyancy

Meaning : the ability or tendency of something to float in water or other fluid.

Tamil Meaning :மிதக்கும்தன்மை

Synonyms : elasticity

Antonyms : depression

Example : “the drum’s buoyancy forced it up again”

13) contend

Meaning : struggle to surmount (a difficulty).

Tamil Meaning : போராட

Synonyms : confront

Antonyms : agree

Example : “she had to contend with his uncertain temper”

14) temptation

Meaning : the desire to do something, especially something wrong or unwise.

Tamil Meaning : சலனமும்

Synonyms : allurement

Antonyms : dislike

Example : “he resisted the temptation to call Celia at the office”

15) accruing

Meaning : (of a benefit or sum of money) be received by someone in regular or increasing amounts over time.

Tamil Meaning : பெருகுவதிலிருந்து

Synonyms : accumulate

Antonyms : disperse

Example : “financial benefits will accrue from restructuring”

16) rustle

Meaning : a soft, muffled crackling sound like that made by the movement of dry leaves or paper.(v)

Tamil Meaning : சலசலப்பு

Synonyms : crackle

Antonyms : silence

Example : “there was a rustle in the undergrowth behind her”

17) requisite

Meaning : made necessary by particular circumstances or regulations.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : தேவையான

Synonyms : essential

Antonyms : nonessential

Example : “the application will not be processed until the requisite fee is paid”

18) revival

Meaning : an improvement in the condition, strength, or fortunes of someone or something(n).

Tamil Meaning : மறுமலர்ச்சி

Synonyms : recovery

Antonyms : destruction

Example : “a revival in the fortunes of the party”

19) glaring

Meaning : giving out or reflecting a strong or dazzling light.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : வெளிப்படையான

Synonyms : blatant

Antonyms : concealed

Example : “the glaring sun”

20) transfused

Meaning : transfer (blood or its components) from one person or animal to another.

Tamil Meaning : ஏற்றப்பட்டிருக்கும்

Synonyms : suffuse

Antonyms : aid

Example : “it is usual to transfuse blood screened for cytomegalovirus”

21) exposure

Meaning : the state of having no protection from something harmful.(n)

Tamil Meaning : வெளிப்பாடு

Synonyms : disclosure

Antonyms : certainty

Example :”the dangers posed by exposure to asbestos”

22) reveal

Meaning : make (previously unknown or secret information) known to others.

Tamil Meaning : வெளிப்படுத்த

Synonyms : acknowledge

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “Brenda was forced to reveal Robbie’s whereabouts”

23) consent

Meaning : permission for something to happen or agreement to do something.

Tamil Meaning : ஒப்புதல்

Synonyms : approval

Antonyms : denial

Example : “no change may be made without the consent of all the partners”

24) disclosure

Meaning : the action of making new or secret information known.

Synonyms : admission

Antonyms : concealment

Example : “a judge ordered the disclosure of the government documents”

25) donating

Meaning : give (money or goods) for a good cause, for example to a charity.

Synonyms : award

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “the proceeds will be donated to an AIDS awareness charity”

26) tragic

Meaning : causing or characterized by extreme distress or sorrow.(adj)

Synonyms : deplorable

Antonyms : blessed

Example : “the shooting was a tragic accident”

27) contacting

Meaning : communicate with (someone), typically in order to give or receive information.(v)

Synonyms : influence

Antonyms : avoidance

Example : “anyone with any information should contact Darlington police”

28) fewer

Meaning : a small number of.

Tamil Meaning : குறைவான

Synonyms : less

Antonyms : major

Example : “may I ask a few questions?”

29) imperative

Meaning : of vital importance; crucial.

Tamil Meaning : கட்டாயமாகும்

Synonyms : compulsory

Antonyms : inessential

Example : “immediate action was imperative”

30) viable

Meaning : capable of working successfully; feasible.

Tamil Meaning : சாத்தியமான

Synonyms : feasible

Antonyms : unlikely

Example : “the proposed investment was economically viable”

31) transmissible

Meaning : capable of working successfully; feasible.

Tamil Meaning : ஒலிபரப்பு

Synonyms : conveyance

Example : “the proposed investment was economically viable”

32) diagnose

Meaning : identify the nature of (an illness or other problem) by examination of the symptoms.

Tamil Meaning : கண்டறிய

Synonyms : analyze

Antonyms : miss

Example : “two doctors failed to diagnose a punctured lung”

33) awareness

Meaning : knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.

Tamil Meaning : விழிப்புணர்வு

Synonyms : appreciation

Antonyms : disregard

Example : “we need to raise public awareness of the issue”

34) confirm

Meaning : establish the truth or correctness of (something previously believed or suspected to be the case).

Tamil Meaning : உறுதிப்படுத்த

Synonyms : affirm

Antonyms : confuse

Example : “if these fears are confirmed, the outlook for the economy will be dire”

35) precautionary

Meaning : carried out as a precaution; preventive.

Tamil Meaning : முன்னெச்சரிக்கை

Synonyms : careful

Example : “she was taken to hospital as a precautionary measure”

36) protracted

Meaning : lasting for a long time or longer than expected or usual.

Tamil Meaning : முன்னெச்சரிக்கை

Synonyms : continued

Example : “a protracted and bitter dispute”

37) encouraging

Meaning : giving someone support or confidence; supportive.

Tamil Meaning : ஊக்குவித்து

Synonyms : hopeful

Antonyms : hopeless

Example : “she gave me an encouraging smile”

38) designated

Meaning : appoint (someone) to a specified office or post.

Tamil Meaning : நியமிக்கப்பட்ட

Synonyms : nominate

Example : “he was designated as prime minister”

39) mandatory

Meaning : required by law or mandate; compulsory.(adj)

Tamil Meaning : கட்டாயமாகும்

Synonyms : binding

Antonyms : optional

Example : “wearing helmets was made mandatory for pedal cyclists”

40) indicating

Meaning : required by law or mandate; compulsory.

Synonyms : announce

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “wearing helmets was made mandatory for pedal cyclists”




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